Resistance to infection, early and persistent suppression of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251 viremia, and significant reduction of tissue viral burden after mucosal vaccination in female rhesus macaques.
The efficacy of oral, intestinal, nasal, and vaginal vaccinations with DNA simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/interleukin-2 (IL-2)/IL-15, SIV Gag/Pol/Env recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA), and AT-2 SIVmac239 inactivated particles was compared in rhesus macaques after low-dose vaginal challenge with SIVmac251. Intestinal immunization provided better protection from infection, as a significantly greater median number of challenges was necessary in this group than in the others. Oral and nasal vaccinations provided the most significant control of disease progression. Fifty percent of the orally and nasally vaccinated animals suppressed viremia to undetectable levels, while this occurred to a significantly lower degree in intestinally and vaginally vaccinated animals and in controls. Viremia remained undetectable after CD8(+) T-cell depletion in seven vaccinated animals that had suppressed viremia after infection, and tissue analysis for SIV DNA and RNA was negative, a result consistent with a significant reduction of viral activity. Regardless of the route of vaccination, mucosal vaccinations prevented loss of CD4(+) central memory and CD4(+)/α4β7(+) T-cell populations and reduced immune activation to different degrees. None of the orally vaccinated animals and only one of the nasally vaccinated animals developed AIDS after 72 to 84 weeks of infection, when the trial was closed. The levels of anti-SIV gamma interferon-positive, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells at the time of first challenge inversely correlated with viremia and directly correlated with protection from infection and longer survival.
Manrique, M; Kozlowski, PA; Cobo-Molinos, A; Wang, S-W; Wilson, RL; Martinez-Viedma, MDP; Montefiori, DC; Carville, A; Aldovini, A
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)