Skip to main content

Melanie Byrne Thomas

Associate Professor of Medicine
Medicine, Medical Oncology

Selected Publications


Estimating the effects of temperature on transmission of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

Journal Article Nat Commun · April 22, 2024 Despite concern that climate change could increase the human risk to malaria in certain areas, the temperature dependency of malaria transmission is poorly characterized. Here, we use a mechanistic model fitted to experimental data to describe how Plasmodi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phenotypic adaptation to temperature in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti.

Journal Article Glob Chang Biol · January 2024 Most models exploring the effects of climate change on mosquito-borne disease ignore thermal adaptation. However, if local adaptation leads to changes in mosquito thermal responses, "one size fits all" models could fail to capture current variation between ... Full text Link to item Cite

Efficacy of a 'lethal house lure' against Culex quinquefasciatus from Bouaké city, Côte d'Ivoire.

Journal Article Parasit Vectors · August 28, 2023 BACKGROUND: Eave tube technology is a novel method of insecticide application that uses an electrostatic coating system to boost insecticide efficacy against resistant mosquitoes. A series of previous experiments showed encouraging insecticidal effects aga ... Full text Link to item Cite

Anopheles vector distribution and malaria transmission dynamics in Gbêkê region, central Côte d'Ivoire.

Journal Article Malar J · June 22, 2023 BACKGROUND: A better understanding of vector distribution and malaria transmission dynamics at a local scale is essential for implementing and evaluating effectiveness of vector control strategies. Through the data gathered in the framework of a cluster ra ... Full text Link to item Cite

Housing modification for malaria control: impact of a "lethal house lure" intervention on malaria infection prevalence in a cluster randomised control trial in Côte d'Ivoire.

Journal Article BMC medicine · May 2023 BackgroundIn recent years, the downward trajectory of malaria transmission has slowed and, in some places, reversed. New tools are needed to further reduce malaria transmission. One approach that has received recent attention is a novel house-base ... Full text Cite

Exploring alternative insecticide delivery options in a "lethal house lure" for malaria vector control.

Journal Article Sci Rep · March 24, 2023 The In2Care EaveTube is a house modification designed to block and kill malaria mosquitoes using an electrostatic netting treated with insecticide powder. A previous study demonstrated prolonged duration of effective action of insecticide-treated electrost ... Full text Link to item Cite

Scientists' warning on climate change and insects

Journal Article Ecological Monographs · February 1, 2023 Climate warming is considered to be among the most serious of anthropogenic stresses to the environment, because it not only has direct effects on biodiversity, but it also exacerbates the harmful effects of other human-mediated threats. The associated con ... Full text Cite

Omitting age-dependent mosquito mortality in malaria models underestimates the effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets.

Journal Article PLoS Comput Biol · September 2022 Mathematical models of vector-borne infections, including malaria, often assume age-independent mortality rates of vectors, despite evidence that many insects senesce. In this study we present survival data on insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. f ... Full text Link to item Cite

Entomological indicators of malaria transmission prior to a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a 'lethal house lure' intervention in central Côte d'Ivoire.

Journal Article Malar J · June 15, 2022 BACKGROUND: A study was conducted prior to implementing a cluster-randomized controlled trial (CRT) of a lethal house lure strategy in central Côte d'Ivoire to provide baseline information on malaria indicators in 40 villages across five health districts. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of novel lab assays to examine the effect of pyrethroid-treated bed nets on blood-feeding success and longevity of highly insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes.

Journal Article Parasit Vectors · March 28, 2022 BACKGROUND: There is a pressing need to improve understanding of how insecticide resistance affects the functional performance of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Standard WHO insecticide resistance monitoring assays are designed for resistance surveillanc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evaluation of the interaction between insecticide resistance-associated genes and malaria transmission in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato in central Côte d'Ivoire.

Journal Article Parasit Vectors · November 20, 2021 BACKGROUND: There is evidence that the knockdown resistance gene (Kdr) L1014F and acetylcholinesterase-1 gene (Ace-1R) G119S mutations involved in pyrethroid and carbamate resistance in Anopheles gambiae influence malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microbes increase thermal sensitivity in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, with the potential to change disease distributions.

Journal Article PLoS Negl Trop Dis · July 2021 The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of many disease-causing viruses, including dengue (DENV), Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever. As consequences of climate change, we expect an increase in both global mean temperatures and extreme climatic e ... Full text Link to item Cite

A non-destructive sugar-feeding assay for parasite detection and estimating the extrinsic incubation period of Plasmodium falciparum in individual mosquito vectors.

Journal Article Sci Rep · April 29, 2021 Despite its epidemiological importance, the time Plasmodium parasites take to achieve development in the vector mosquito (the extrinsic incubation period, EIP) remains poorly characterized. A novel non-destructive assay designed to estimate EIP in single m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fine scale spatial investigation of multiple insecticide resistance and underlying target-site and metabolic mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae in central Côte d'Ivoire.

Journal Article Sci Rep · September 15, 2020 Routine monitoring of occurrence, levels and mechanisms of insecticide resistance informs effective management strategies, and should be used to assess the effect of new tools on resistance. As part of a cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating a nov ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Role of Vector Trait Variation in Vector-Borne Disease Dynamics

Journal Article Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution · July 10, 2020 Many important endemic and emerging diseases are transmitted by vectors that are biting arthropods. The functional traits of vectors can affect pathogen transmission rates directly and also through their effect on vector population dynamics. Increasing emp ... Full text Cite

The influence of feeding behaviour and temperature on the capacity of mosquitoes to transmit malaria.

Journal Article Nat Ecol Evol · July 2020 Insecticide-treated bed nets reduce malaria transmission by limiting contact between mosquito vectors and human hosts when mosquitoes feed during the night. However, malaria vectors can also feed in the early evening and in the morning when people are not ... Full text Link to item Cite

Communal Innovations: Inspiring Neighborhoods of Hope and Advocacy.

Journal Article J Health Commun · May 3, 2020 Innovations promise a better future, which may generate feelings of hope and inspire advocacy. Some innovations are more communal in nature: attempting to address a social problem, through community engagement and wide-spread adoption. For such innovations ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of alternative bioassays to explore the impact of pyrethroid resistance on LLIN efficacy.

Journal Article Parasit Vectors · April 7, 2020 BACKGROUND: There is substantial concern that the spread of insecticide resistance will render long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) ineffective. However, there is limited evidence supporting a clear association between insecticide resistance and m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Field Relevant Variation in Ambient Temperature Modifies Density-Dependent Establishment of Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytes in Mosquitoes

Journal Article Frontiers in Microbiology · November 15, 2019 The relationship between Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte density and infections in mosquitoes is central to understanding the rates of transmission with important implications for control. Here, we determined whether field relevant variation in environmen ... Full text Cite

Estimating the effects of temperature on transmission of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

Journal Article Nat Commun · April 22, 2024 Despite concern that climate change could increase the human risk to malaria in certain areas, the temperature dependency of malaria transmission is poorly characterized. Here, we use a mechanistic model fitted to experimental data to describe how Plasmodi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phenotypic adaptation to temperature in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti.

Journal Article Glob Chang Biol · January 2024 Most models exploring the effects of climate change on mosquito-borne disease ignore thermal adaptation. However, if local adaptation leads to changes in mosquito thermal responses, "one size fits all" models could fail to capture current variation between ... Full text Link to item Cite

Efficacy of a 'lethal house lure' against Culex quinquefasciatus from Bouaké city, Côte d'Ivoire.

Journal Article Parasit Vectors · August 28, 2023 BACKGROUND: Eave tube technology is a novel method of insecticide application that uses an electrostatic coating system to boost insecticide efficacy against resistant mosquitoes. A series of previous experiments showed encouraging insecticidal effects aga ... Full text Link to item Cite

Anopheles vector distribution and malaria transmission dynamics in Gbêkê region, central Côte d'Ivoire.

Journal Article Malar J · June 22, 2023 BACKGROUND: A better understanding of vector distribution and malaria transmission dynamics at a local scale is essential for implementing and evaluating effectiveness of vector control strategies. Through the data gathered in the framework of a cluster ra ... Full text Link to item Cite

Housing modification for malaria control: impact of a "lethal house lure" intervention on malaria infection prevalence in a cluster randomised control trial in Côte d'Ivoire.

Journal Article BMC medicine · May 2023 BackgroundIn recent years, the downward trajectory of malaria transmission has slowed and, in some places, reversed. New tools are needed to further reduce malaria transmission. One approach that has received recent attention is a novel house-base ... Full text Cite

Exploring alternative insecticide delivery options in a "lethal house lure" for malaria vector control.

Journal Article Sci Rep · March 24, 2023 The In2Care EaveTube is a house modification designed to block and kill malaria mosquitoes using an electrostatic netting treated with insecticide powder. A previous study demonstrated prolonged duration of effective action of insecticide-treated electrost ... Full text Link to item Cite

Scientists' warning on climate change and insects

Journal Article Ecological Monographs · February 1, 2023 Climate warming is considered to be among the most serious of anthropogenic stresses to the environment, because it not only has direct effects on biodiversity, but it also exacerbates the harmful effects of other human-mediated threats. The associated con ... Full text Cite

Omitting age-dependent mosquito mortality in malaria models underestimates the effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets.

Journal Article PLoS Comput Biol · September 2022 Mathematical models of vector-borne infections, including malaria, often assume age-independent mortality rates of vectors, despite evidence that many insects senesce. In this study we present survival data on insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. f ... Full text Link to item Cite

Entomological indicators of malaria transmission prior to a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a 'lethal house lure' intervention in central Côte d'Ivoire.

Journal Article Malar J · June 15, 2022 BACKGROUND: A study was conducted prior to implementing a cluster-randomized controlled trial (CRT) of a lethal house lure strategy in central Côte d'Ivoire to provide baseline information on malaria indicators in 40 villages across five health districts. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of novel lab assays to examine the effect of pyrethroid-treated bed nets on blood-feeding success and longevity of highly insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes.

Journal Article Parasit Vectors · March 28, 2022 BACKGROUND: There is a pressing need to improve understanding of how insecticide resistance affects the functional performance of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Standard WHO insecticide resistance monitoring assays are designed for resistance surveillanc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evaluation of the interaction between insecticide resistance-associated genes and malaria transmission in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato in central Côte d'Ivoire.

Journal Article Parasit Vectors · November 20, 2021 BACKGROUND: There is evidence that the knockdown resistance gene (Kdr) L1014F and acetylcholinesterase-1 gene (Ace-1R) G119S mutations involved in pyrethroid and carbamate resistance in Anopheles gambiae influence malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microbes increase thermal sensitivity in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, with the potential to change disease distributions.

Journal Article PLoS Negl Trop Dis · July 2021 The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of many disease-causing viruses, including dengue (DENV), Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever. As consequences of climate change, we expect an increase in both global mean temperatures and extreme climatic e ... Full text Link to item Cite

A non-destructive sugar-feeding assay for parasite detection and estimating the extrinsic incubation period of Plasmodium falciparum in individual mosquito vectors.

Journal Article Sci Rep · April 29, 2021 Despite its epidemiological importance, the time Plasmodium parasites take to achieve development in the vector mosquito (the extrinsic incubation period, EIP) remains poorly characterized. A novel non-destructive assay designed to estimate EIP in single m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fine scale spatial investigation of multiple insecticide resistance and underlying target-site and metabolic mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae in central Côte d'Ivoire.

Journal Article Sci Rep · September 15, 2020 Routine monitoring of occurrence, levels and mechanisms of insecticide resistance informs effective management strategies, and should be used to assess the effect of new tools on resistance. As part of a cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating a nov ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Role of Vector Trait Variation in Vector-Borne Disease Dynamics

Journal Article Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution · July 10, 2020 Many important endemic and emerging diseases are transmitted by vectors that are biting arthropods. The functional traits of vectors can affect pathogen transmission rates directly and also through their effect on vector population dynamics. Increasing emp ... Full text Cite

The influence of feeding behaviour and temperature on the capacity of mosquitoes to transmit malaria.

Journal Article Nat Ecol Evol · July 2020 Insecticide-treated bed nets reduce malaria transmission by limiting contact between mosquito vectors and human hosts when mosquitoes feed during the night. However, malaria vectors can also feed in the early evening and in the morning when people are not ... Full text Link to item Cite

Communal Innovations: Inspiring Neighborhoods of Hope and Advocacy.

Journal Article J Health Commun · May 3, 2020 Innovations promise a better future, which may generate feelings of hope and inspire advocacy. Some innovations are more communal in nature: attempting to address a social problem, through community engagement and wide-spread adoption. For such innovations ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of alternative bioassays to explore the impact of pyrethroid resistance on LLIN efficacy.

Journal Article Parasit Vectors · April 7, 2020 BACKGROUND: There is substantial concern that the spread of insecticide resistance will render long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) ineffective. However, there is limited evidence supporting a clear association between insecticide resistance and m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Field Relevant Variation in Ambient Temperature Modifies Density-Dependent Establishment of Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytes in Mosquitoes

Journal Article Frontiers in Microbiology · November 15, 2019 The relationship between Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte density and infections in mosquitoes is central to understanding the rates of transmission with important implications for control. Here, we determined whether field relevant variation in environmen ... Full text Cite

Thermal biology of mosquito-borne disease.

Journal Article Ecol Lett · October 2019 Mosquito-borne diseases cause a major burden of disease worldwide. The vital rates of these ectothermic vectors and parasites respond strongly and nonlinearly to temperature and therefore to climate change. Here, we review how trait-based approaches can sy ... Full text Link to item Cite

Semi-field evaluation of the cumulative effects of a "Lethal House Lure" on malaria mosquito mortality.

Journal Article Malar J · August 30, 2019 BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the potential to modify houses to target mosquitoes with insecticides or repellents as they search for human hosts. One version of this 'Lethal House Lure' approach is the In2Care® EaveTube, which consists of a sect ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exploring the lower thermal limits for development of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

Journal Article Biol Lett · June 28, 2019 The rate of malaria transmission is strongly determined by parasite development time in the mosquito, known as the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), since the quicker parasites develop, the greater the chance that the vector will survive long enough for t ... Full text Link to item Cite

A phase I study to determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of intravenous administration of TAS-106 once per week for three consecutive weeks every 28 days in patients with solid tumors.

Journal Article Anticancer Res · May 2012 BACKGROUND: The nucleoside 3'-c-ethynylcytidine (TAS-106) was designed to inhibit RNA synthesis which occurs throughout the cell cycle except for the M phase. TAS-106 is incorporated into cells, is rapidly phosphorylated to a monophosphate form, and is pre ... Link to item Cite

Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of 3'-C-ethynylcytidine (TAS-106), an inhibitor of RNA polymerase I, II and III,in patients with advanced solid malignancies.

Journal Article Invest New Drugs · February 2012 BACKGROUND: TAS-106 is a novel nucleoside analog that inhibits RNA polymerases I, II and II and has demonstrated robust antitumor activity in a wide range of models of human cancer in preclinical studies. This study was performed to principally evaluate th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Efficacy of bevacizumab plus erlotinib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and predictors of outcome: final results of a phase II trial.

Journal Article Oncology · 2012 OBJECTIVE: A phase II study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of bevacizumab and erlotinib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and to investigate clinical and molecular predictors of outcome. METHODS: 59 patients with ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association between hypothyroidism and hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study in the United States.

Journal Article Hepatology · May 2009 Thyroid hormones play an essential role in lipid mobilization, lipid degradation, and fatty acid oxidation. Hypothyroidism has been associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; however, the association between thyroid diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase II trial of the combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib in patients who have advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · February 20, 2009 PURPOSE: The study objective was to determine the proportion of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with the combination of bevacizumab (B) and erlotinib (E) who were alive and progression free at 16 weeks (16-week progression-free surviva ... Full text Link to item Cite

The association of family history of liver cancer with hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study in the United States.

Journal Article J Hepatol · February 2009 BACKGROUND/AIMS: The study aimed at addressing the connection between positive family history of liver cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in the USA. METHODS: At The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 347 patients with path ... Full text Link to item Cite

A phase I/II trial of TAC-101, an oral synthetic retinoid, in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

Journal Article J Cancer Res Clin Oncol · December 2008 PURPOSE: Preclinical models showed TAC-101 (4-[3,5-bis(trimethylsilyl) benzamide] benzoic acid), an oral synthetic retinoid, has anti-tumor activity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A phase I/II study was performed in advanced HCC patients (pts). PATIENT ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of different types of smoking and synergism with hepatitis C virus on risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in American men and women: case-control study.

Journal Article Int J Cancer · October 15, 2008 The International Agency for Research on Cancer has declared smoking to be a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, passive exposure to cigarette smoke and use of noncigarette tobacco products on the risk of HCC has not been examined. The ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase 1 study of TAS-102 administered once daily on a 5-day-per-week schedule in patients with solid tumors.

Journal Article Invest New Drugs · October 2008 This study was designed to determine the safety and optimal dosing of TAS-102, a novel oral combination of alphaalphaalpha-trifluorothymidine (FTD) and an inhibitor of thymidine phoshorylase, in patients with solid tumors. Patients who met the eligibility ... Full text Link to item Cite

A phase II study of UFT with leucovorin administered as a twice daily schedule in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

Journal Article Br J Cancer · September 2, 2008 Prolonged infusions have been shown to be safer and potentially more effective than bolus regimens of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, infusional 5-FU requires central venous access and costly infusion pu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase 2 study of erlotinib in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

Journal Article Cancer · September 1, 2007 BACKGROUND: Growth factor overexpression, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression, is common in hepatocellular cancers. Erlotinib is a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with specificity for EGFR. The primary objective of this study wa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Opportunities for targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · November 1, 2005 Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the fifth most common solid tumor worldwide, accounting for 500,000 new cases annually. Although less common in the United States, HCC is expected to increase in incidence over the next two decades largely because of the prev ... Full text Link to item Cite

How much do we value applied environmental research? [4]

Journal Article Trends in Ecology and Evolution · January 1, 1999 Full text Cite