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Allison Gilbert

Associate Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Psychiatry, Child & Family Mental Health & Community Psychiatry
DUMC Box 102505, Durham, NC 27705
DUMC Box 102505, Durham, NC 27701

Selected Publications


NORTH CAROLINA LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTED DIVERSION (LEAD): CONSIDERATIONS FOR OPTIMIZING ELIGIBILITY AND REFERRAL

Journal Article Law and Contemporary Problems · January 1, 2023 In 2011, a diverse group of stakeholders in Seattle, Washington, developed an alternative to repeated arrests and incarceration of people whose low-level unlawful conduct stemmed from unmet behavioral health needs, launching a new model called Law Enforcem ... Cite

A mixed methods study of provider factors in buprenorphine treatment retention.

Journal Article Int J Drug Policy · July 2022 BACKGROUND: Low retention is a persistent challenge in the delivery of buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). The goal of this study was to identify provider factors that could drive differences in treatment retention while accounting for t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Appropriateness of psychiatric advance directives facilitated by peer support specialists and clinicians on Assertive Community Treatment teams.

Journal Article J Ment Health · April 2022 BACKGROUND: Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are used to document a person's treatment preferences for a future mental health crisis. Peer support specialists have been proposed to facilitate PADs, but little is known about the quality of peer versus ... Full text Link to item Cite

North Carolina Specialty Courts, Treatment Access, and the Substance Use Crisis: A Promising but Underfunded Model.

Journal Article Psychiatr Serv · December 1, 2021 Treatment courts aim to reduce criminal recidivism by addressing the behavioral health care needs of persons with psychiatric or substance use disorders that contribute to their offending. Stable funding and access to behavioral health providers are crucia ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of psychiatric advance directive facilitation on mental health consumers: empowerment, treatment attitudes and the role of peer support specialists.

Journal Article J Ment Health · October 2021 BACKGROUND: A psychiatric advance directive (PAD) is designed to prevent involuntary mental health interventions by enabling people with serious mental illnesses to plan ahead for their own treatment during a future incapacitating crisis. This study implem ... Full text Link to item Cite

Implementing Psychiatric Advance Directives: The Transmitter and Receiver Problem and the Neglected Right to Be Deemed Incapable.

Journal Article Psychiatr Serv · February 1, 2021 Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) can help adults with serious mental illnesses preserve their autonomy and avoid involuntary interventions during an incapacitating mental health crisis. A PAD is a legal document prepared while mentally competent and s ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Gun-Related and Other Violent Crime After Involuntary Commitment and Short-Term Emergency Holds.

Journal Article J Am Acad Psychiatry Law · December 2020 This article presents a survival analysis of long-term risk of firearm-related and other violent crime in a large sample of adults with serious mental illness in Florida, comparing those who received a gun-disqualifying civil commitment after a short-term ... Full text Link to item Cite

Gender-specific participation and outcomes among jail diversion clients with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders.

Journal Article J Subst Abuse Treat · August 2020 Men and women with co-occurring substance use disorders and mental illness are at relatively high risk for becoming involved in the criminal justice system. Programs, such as post-booking jail diversion, aim to connect these individuals to community-based ... Full text Link to item Cite

Primary Care Providers And Specialists Deliver Comparable Buprenorphine Treatment Quality.

Journal Article Health Aff (Millwood) · August 2020 In response to rising numbers of opioid overdose deaths, primary care providers have been called on to play a greater role in delivering buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder. However, policy makers and providers have raised concerns that expandi ... Full text Link to item Cite

The effect of Medicaid expansion on use of opioid agonist treatment and the role of provider capacity constraints.

Journal Article Health Serv Res · June 2020 OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Medicaid expansion on the use of opioid agonist treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) and to examine heterogeneous effects by provider supply and Medicaid acceptance rates. DATA SOURCES: Yearly state-level data on me ... Full text Link to item Cite

Criminal Justice and Suicide Outcomes with Indiana's Risk-Based Gun Seizure Law.

Journal Article J Am Acad Psychiatry Law · June 2019 This article examines the application and effectiveness of a 2006 Indiana law designed to prevent gun violence by authorizing police officers to separate firearms from persons who present imminent or future risk of injury to self or others, or display a pr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Medication-Assisted Treatment for Alcohol-Dependent Adults With Serious Mental Illness and Criminal Justice Involvement: Effects on Treatment Utilization and Outcomes.

Journal Article Am J Psychiatry · July 1, 2018 OBJECTIVE: Adults with serious mental illness and comorbid alcohol dependence are at high risk for both high utilization of crisis-driven health care services and criminal justice involvement. Evidence-based medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for alcohol ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations between pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence and clinical and criminal justice outcomes among adults with co-occurring serious mental illness.

Journal Article J Subst Abuse Treat · March 2018 Adults suffering from a serious mental illness (SMI) and a substance use disorder are at especially high risk for poor clinical outcomes and also arrest and incarceration. Pharmacotherapies for treating opioid dependence could be a particularly important m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Extended-release naltrexone and drug treatment courts: Policy and evidence for implementing an evidence-based treatment.

Journal Article Journal of substance abuse treatment · February 2018 With insufficient access to treatment and a tradition of criminalizing addiction, people with substance use disorders - including opioid dependence - are more likely to be incarcerated than they are to receive the treatment they need. Drug treatment courts ... Full text Open Access Cite

Facilitation of Psychiatric Advance Directives by Peers and Clinicians on Assertive Community Treatment Teams.

Journal Article Psychiatr Serv · July 1, 2017 OBJECTIVE: Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) provide a legal mechanism for competent adults to document care preferences and authorize a surrogate to make treatment decisions. In a controlled research setting, an evidence-based intervention, the facili ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Involuntary Outpatient Commitment and the Elusive Pursuit of Violence Prevention.

Journal Article Can J Psychiatry · February 2017 OBJECTIVE: Involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC)-also referred to as 'assisted outpatient treatment' or 'community treatment orders'-are civil court orders whereby persons with serious mental illness and repeated hospitalisations are ordered to adhere to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Gun Violence, Mental Illness, And Laws That Prohibit Gun Possession: Evidence From Two Florida Counties.

Journal Article Health Aff (Millwood) · June 1, 2016 Gun violence kills about ninety people every day in the United States, a toll measured in wasted and ruined lives and with an annual economic price tag exceeding $200┬ábillion. Some policy makers suggest that reforming mental health care systems and improvi ... Full text Link to item Cite

NORTH CAROLINA LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTED DIVERSION (LEAD): CONSIDERATIONS FOR OPTIMIZING ELIGIBILITY AND REFERRAL

Journal Article Law and Contemporary Problems · January 1, 2023 In 2011, a diverse group of stakeholders in Seattle, Washington, developed an alternative to repeated arrests and incarceration of people whose low-level unlawful conduct stemmed from unmet behavioral health needs, launching a new model called Law Enforcem ... Cite

A mixed methods study of provider factors in buprenorphine treatment retention.

Journal Article Int J Drug Policy · July 2022 BACKGROUND: Low retention is a persistent challenge in the delivery of buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). The goal of this study was to identify provider factors that could drive differences in treatment retention while accounting for t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Appropriateness of psychiatric advance directives facilitated by peer support specialists and clinicians on Assertive Community Treatment teams.

Journal Article J Ment Health · April 2022 BACKGROUND: Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are used to document a person's treatment preferences for a future mental health crisis. Peer support specialists have been proposed to facilitate PADs, but little is known about the quality of peer versus ... Full text Link to item Cite

North Carolina Specialty Courts, Treatment Access, and the Substance Use Crisis: A Promising but Underfunded Model.

Journal Article Psychiatr Serv · December 1, 2021 Treatment courts aim to reduce criminal recidivism by addressing the behavioral health care needs of persons with psychiatric or substance use disorders that contribute to their offending. Stable funding and access to behavioral health providers are crucia ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of psychiatric advance directive facilitation on mental health consumers: empowerment, treatment attitudes and the role of peer support specialists.

Journal Article J Ment Health · October 2021 BACKGROUND: A psychiatric advance directive (PAD) is designed to prevent involuntary mental health interventions by enabling people with serious mental illnesses to plan ahead for their own treatment during a future incapacitating crisis. This study implem ... Full text Link to item Cite

Implementing Psychiatric Advance Directives: The Transmitter and Receiver Problem and the Neglected Right to Be Deemed Incapable.

Journal Article Psychiatr Serv · February 1, 2021 Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) can help adults with serious mental illnesses preserve their autonomy and avoid involuntary interventions during an incapacitating mental health crisis. A PAD is a legal document prepared while mentally competent and s ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Gun-Related and Other Violent Crime After Involuntary Commitment and Short-Term Emergency Holds.

Journal Article J Am Acad Psychiatry Law · December 2020 This article presents a survival analysis of long-term risk of firearm-related and other violent crime in a large sample of adults with serious mental illness in Florida, comparing those who received a gun-disqualifying civil commitment after a short-term ... Full text Link to item Cite

Gender-specific participation and outcomes among jail diversion clients with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders.

Journal Article J Subst Abuse Treat · August 2020 Men and women with co-occurring substance use disorders and mental illness are at relatively high risk for becoming involved in the criminal justice system. Programs, such as post-booking jail diversion, aim to connect these individuals to community-based ... Full text Link to item Cite

Primary Care Providers And Specialists Deliver Comparable Buprenorphine Treatment Quality.

Journal Article Health Aff (Millwood) · August 2020 In response to rising numbers of opioid overdose deaths, primary care providers have been called on to play a greater role in delivering buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder. However, policy makers and providers have raised concerns that expandi ... Full text Link to item Cite

The effect of Medicaid expansion on use of opioid agonist treatment and the role of provider capacity constraints.

Journal Article Health Serv Res · June 2020 OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Medicaid expansion on the use of opioid agonist treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) and to examine heterogeneous effects by provider supply and Medicaid acceptance rates. DATA SOURCES: Yearly state-level data on me ... Full text Link to item Cite

Criminal Justice and Suicide Outcomes with Indiana's Risk-Based Gun Seizure Law.

Journal Article J Am Acad Psychiatry Law · June 2019 This article examines the application and effectiveness of a 2006 Indiana law designed to prevent gun violence by authorizing police officers to separate firearms from persons who present imminent or future risk of injury to self or others, or display a pr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Medication-Assisted Treatment for Alcohol-Dependent Adults With Serious Mental Illness and Criminal Justice Involvement: Effects on Treatment Utilization and Outcomes.

Journal Article Am J Psychiatry · July 1, 2018 OBJECTIVE: Adults with serious mental illness and comorbid alcohol dependence are at high risk for both high utilization of crisis-driven health care services and criminal justice involvement. Evidence-based medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for alcohol ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations between pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence and clinical and criminal justice outcomes among adults with co-occurring serious mental illness.

Journal Article J Subst Abuse Treat · March 2018 Adults suffering from a serious mental illness (SMI) and a substance use disorder are at especially high risk for poor clinical outcomes and also arrest and incarceration. Pharmacotherapies for treating opioid dependence could be a particularly important m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Extended-release naltrexone and drug treatment courts: Policy and evidence for implementing an evidence-based treatment.

Journal Article Journal of substance abuse treatment · February 2018 With insufficient access to treatment and a tradition of criminalizing addiction, people with substance use disorders - including opioid dependence - are more likely to be incarcerated than they are to receive the treatment they need. Drug treatment courts ... Full text Open Access Cite

Facilitation of Psychiatric Advance Directives by Peers and Clinicians on Assertive Community Treatment Teams.

Journal Article Psychiatr Serv · July 1, 2017 OBJECTIVE: Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) provide a legal mechanism for competent adults to document care preferences and authorize a surrogate to make treatment decisions. In a controlled research setting, an evidence-based intervention, the facili ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Involuntary Outpatient Commitment and the Elusive Pursuit of Violence Prevention.

Journal Article Can J Psychiatry · February 2017 OBJECTIVE: Involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC)-also referred to as 'assisted outpatient treatment' or 'community treatment orders'-are civil court orders whereby persons with serious mental illness and repeated hospitalisations are ordered to adhere to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Gun Violence, Mental Illness, And Laws That Prohibit Gun Possession: Evidence From Two Florida Counties.

Journal Article Health Aff (Millwood) · June 1, 2016 Gun violence kills about ninety people every day in the United States, a toll measured in wasted and ruined lives and with an annual economic price tag exceeding $200┬ábillion. Some policy makers suggest that reforming mental health care systems and improvi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

Journal Article Psychiatr Serv · September 2015 The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health trea ... Full text Link to item Cite

Treatment participation and medication adherence: effects on criminal justice costs of persons with mental illness.

Journal Article Psychiatr Serv · October 2014 Little empirical research has directly examined the extent to which early and consistent participation in outpatient services and adherence to prescribed psychotropic medications after a psychiatric hospitalization can help people with serious mental illne ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mental health and reoffending outcomes of jail diversion participants with a brief incarceration after arraignment.

Journal Article Psychiatr Serv · September 1, 2014 OBJECTIVE: Jail diversion programs strive to divert offenders with mental illness from prosecution and into mental health treatment. Participants sometimes spend a short time in jail after arraignment, either because treatment resources are not immediately ... Full text Link to item Cite

Patterns of justice involvement among adults with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: key risk factors.

Journal Article Psychiatr Serv · July 2014 OBJECTIVE: Adults with serious mental illness have a relatively high risk of criminal justice involvement. Some risk factors for justice involvement are known, but the specific interaction of these risk factors has not been examined. This study explored th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Costs of criminal justice involvement among persons with serious mental illness in connecticut.

Journal Article Psychiatr Serv · July 1, 2013 OBJECTIVE: This study sought to describe patterns and costs of criminal justice involvement among adults with serious mental illness who received services across public agencies within a single state. Costs were examined from the perspective of state agenc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Differential service utilization associated with trauma-informed integrated treatment for women with co-occurring disorders.

Journal Article Adm Policy Ment Health · November 2012 Featured Publication Women with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders and trauma histories vary greatly in symptom severity and use of support services. This study estimated differential effects of an integrated treatment intervention (IT) across sub-groups of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mental illness and firearm violence.

Journal Article JAMA · September 7, 2011 Featured Publication Full text Link to item Cite

Service Utilization Patterns as Predictors of Response to Trauma-Informed Integrated Treatment for Women With Co-occurring Disorders.

Journal Article J Dual Diagn · July 2011 Featured Publication OBJECTIVE: The current study examined whether clinical responses to an integrated treatment intervention among women with co-occurring disorders and histories of abuse varied according to their service use patterns at baseline. METHODS: Data were from a na ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reductions in arrest under assisted outpatient treatment in New York.

Journal Article Psychiatr Serv · October 2010 Featured Publication OBJECTIVE: Individuals with serious mental illness have a relatively high risk of criminal justice involvement. Assisted outpatient treatment (AOT) is a legal mechanism that mandates treatment for individuals with serious mental illness who are unlikely to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Continuing medication and hospitalization outcomes after assisted outpatient treatment in New York.

Journal Article Psychiatr Serv · October 2010 Featured Publication OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether persons with mental illness who undergo a period of involuntary outpatient commitment continue to receive prescribed medications and avoid psychiatric hospitalization after outpatient commitment ends. METHODS: Data on ... Full text Link to item Cite

Robbing Peter to pay Paul: did New York State's outpatient commitment program crowd out voluntary service recipients?

Journal Article Psychiatr Serv · October 2010 Featured Publication OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether New York State's assisted outpatient treatment (AOT) program disadvantaged voluntary service recipients by directing services toward court-ordered individuals. METHODS: Administrative data from the New York State Offi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Assessing outcomes for consumers in New York's assisted outpatient treatment program.

Journal Article Psychiatr Serv · October 2010 Featured Publication OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether New York State's assisted outpatient treatment (AOT) program, a form of involuntary outpatient commitment, improves a range of policy-relevant outcomes for court-ordered individuals. METHODS: Administrative data from ... Full text Link to item Cite

Barriers to the adoption and implementation of preventive dental services in primary medical care.

Journal Article Pediatrics · March 2010 Featured Publication OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to adopting preventive oral health procedures in medical primary care. METHODS: Medical providers who participated in a Medicaid demonstration in North Carolina completed questionnaires reporting their experiences with ... Full text Link to item Cite

Psychiatric advance directives and reduction of coercive crisis interventions.

Journal Article J Ment Health · January 1, 2008 Featured Publication BACKGROUND: Psychiatric advance directives are intended to enable self-determined treatment for patients who lose decisional capacity, and thus reduce the need for coercive interventions such as police transport, involuntary commitment, seclusion and restr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapies for nicotine dependence in primary care settings: a multinational comparison.

Journal Article Tob Control · June 2006 Featured Publication OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of the first-line pharmacotherapies (nicotine gum, patch, spray, inhaler, and bupropion) for smoking cessation across six Western countries-Canada, France, Spain, Switzerland, the United States, and ... Full text Link to item Cite

The cost effectiveness of pharmacological smoking cessation therapies in developing countries: a case study in the Seychelles.

Journal Article Tob Control · June 2004 Featured Publication OBJECTIVE: To examine the incremental cost effectiveness of the five first line pharmacological smoking cessation therapies in the Seychelles and other developing countries. DESIGN: A Markov chain cohort simulation. SUBJECTS: Two simulated cohorts of smoke ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cost-effectiveness analysis of the first-line therapies for nicotine dependence.

Journal Article Eur J Clin Pharmacol · July 2003 Featured Publication BACKGROUND: Nicotine dependence is the major obstacle for smokers who want to quit. Guidelines have identified five effective first-line therapies, four nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs)--gum, patch, nasal spray and inhaler--and bupropion. Studying the ... Full text Link to item Cite