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Sophie Wolfe Galson

Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine
Emergency Medicine

Selected Publications


Characteristics and outcomes of patients with symptomatic chronic myocardial injury in a Tanzanian emergency department: A prospective observational study.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2024 BACKGROUND: Chronic myocardial injury is a condition defined by stably elevated cardiac biomarkers without acute myocardial ischemia. Although studies from high-income countries have reported that chronic myocardial injury predicts adverse prognosis, there ... Full text Link to item Cite

Six month incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events among adults with HIV in northern Tanzania: a prospective observational study.

Journal Article BMJ Open · November 19, 2023 OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prospectively describe incident cardiovascular events among people living with HIV (PLWH) in northern Tanzania. Secondary aims of this study were to understand non-communicable disease care-seeking behaviour and patient preferences ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hypertension in an Emergency Department Population in Moshi, Tanzania; A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Hypertension Control.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2023 BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa has a high prevalence of hypertension with a low rate of awareness, treatment adherence, and control. The emergency department (ED) may represent a unique opportunity to improve hypertension screening, awareness, and linkage ... Full text Link to item Cite

Six-month blood pressure and glucose control among HIV-infected adults with elevated blood pressure and hyperglycemia in northern Tanzania: A prospective observational study.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2023 BACKGROUND: People with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa are increasingly developing age-related comorbidities. The purpose of this prospective observational study was to describe 6-month outcomes among Tanzanians with HIV and elevated blood pressure or hyperglyc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Longitudinal ECG changes among adults with HIV in Tanzania: A prospective cohort study.

Journal Article PLOS Glob Public Health · 2023 The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rising among people with HIV (PWH) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Despite the utility of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in screening for CVD, there is limited data regarding longitudinal ECG changes among PWH in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Patient-level interventions to reduce alcohol-related harms in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-summary.

Journal Article PLoS Med · April 2022 BACKGROUND: Disease and disability from alcohol use disproportionately impact people in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While varied interventions have been shown to reduce alcohol use in high-income countries, their efficacy in LMICs has not bee ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and Correlates of Ischemic ECG Findings among Adults With and Without HIV in Tanzania.

Journal Article Glob Heart · 2022 INTRODUCTION: HIV confers increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but there has been little study of ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) findings among people with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence of ischemic ECG findings ... Full text Link to item Cite

Incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Northern Tanzania: A Modeling Approach Within a Prospective Observational Study.

Journal Article J Am Heart Assoc · August 3, 2021 Background Rigorous incidence data for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in sub-Saharan Africa are lacking. Consequently, modeling studies based on limited data have suggested that the burden of AMI and AMI-associated mortality in sub-Saharan Africa is low ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Hypertension Care for People With HIV in Tanzania: Provider Perspectives and Opportunities for Improvement.

Journal Article J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care · 2021 One in three people with HIV (PWH) has hypertension. However, most hypertensive PWH in sub-Saharan Africa are unaware of their hypertension diagnosis and are not on treatment. To better understand barriers to hypertension care faced by PWH, we interviewed ... Full text Link to item Cite

Acute myocardial infarction under-diagnosis and mortality in a Tanzanian emergency department: A prospective observational study.

Journal Article Am Heart J · August 2020 BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that under-diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may be common in sub-Saharan Africa. Prospective studies of routine AMI screening among patients presenting to emergency departments in sub-Saharan Africa are l ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The burden of acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, and stroke among emergency department admissions in Tanzania: A retrospective observational study.

Journal Article Afr J Emerg Med · December 2019 INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa is substantial and growing. Much remains to be learned about the relative burden of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), heart failure, and stroke on emergency departments and hospital ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Tearing chest pain in adult male

Journal Article Visual Journal of Emergency Medicine · July 1, 2019 Full text Cite

Self-medication with non-prescribed pharmaceutical agents in an area of low malaria transmission in northern Tanzania: a community-based survey.

Journal Article Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg · April 1, 2019 BACKGROUND: Self-treatment with antimicrobials is common in sub-Saharan Africa. Little is known about the prevalence of this practice where malaria transmission intensity is low, and little is known about the prevalence of self-treatment with other medicat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Knowledge of myocardial infarction symptoms and perceptions of self-risk in Tanzania.

Journal Article Am Heart J · April 2019 BACKGROUND: Little is known about community knowledge of myocardial infarction symptoms and perceptions of self-risk in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A community survey was conducted in northern Tanzania, where the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors ... Full text Link to item Cite

The burden of hypertension in the emergency department and linkage to care: A prospective cohort study in Tanzania.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2019 OBJECTIVES: Globally, hypertension affects one billion people and disproportionately burdens low-and middle-income countries. Despite the high disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa, optimal care models for diagnosing and treating hypertension have not been ... Full text Link to item Cite

Perceptions of chest pain and healthcare seeking behavior for chest pain in northern Tanzania: A community-based survey.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2019 BACKGROUND: Little is known about community perceptions of chest pain and healthcare seeking behavior for chest pain in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A two-stage randomized population-based cluster survey with selection proportional to population size was p ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Burden of Hypertension and Diabetes in an Emergency Department in Northern Tanzania.

Journal Article Ethn Dis · 2019 INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the burden of hypertension and diabetes on emergency department (ED) utilization and hospitalizations in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A retrospective review of adult ED patients in northern Tanzania was performed from Se ... Full text Link to item Cite

Epidemiology of hypertension in Northern Tanzania: a community-based mixed-methods study.

Journal Article BMJ Open · November 9, 2017 INTRODUCTION: Sub-Saharan Africa is particularly vulnerable to the growing global burden of hypertension, but epidemiological studies are limited and barriers to optimal management are poorly understood. Therefore, we undertook a community-based mixed-meth ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Environmental Hyperthermia in Prehospital Patients with Major Traumatic Brain Injury.

Journal Article J Emerg Med · September 2015 BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in an estimated 1.7 million emergency department visits each year in the United States. These injuries frequently occur outside, leaving injured individuals exposed to environmental temperature extremes befo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hypertension, pre-hypertension, and associated risk factors in a subsistent farmer community in remote rural central India

Journal Article Journal of Public Health (Germany) · June 1, 2013 Aim: Eighty percent of global burden of hypertension is in low-income and middle-income areas. We aimed to assess the point prevalence of hypertension, pre-hypertension, associated risk factors, and awareness about high blood pressure in a subsistent farme ... Full text Cite

Characteristics and outcomes of patients with symptomatic chronic myocardial injury in a Tanzanian emergency department: A prospective observational study.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2024 BACKGROUND: Chronic myocardial injury is a condition defined by stably elevated cardiac biomarkers without acute myocardial ischemia. Although studies from high-income countries have reported that chronic myocardial injury predicts adverse prognosis, there ... Full text Link to item Cite

Six month incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events among adults with HIV in northern Tanzania: a prospective observational study.

Journal Article BMJ Open · November 19, 2023 OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prospectively describe incident cardiovascular events among people living with HIV (PLWH) in northern Tanzania. Secondary aims of this study were to understand non-communicable disease care-seeking behaviour and patient preferences ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hypertension in an Emergency Department Population in Moshi, Tanzania; A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Hypertension Control.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2023 BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa has a high prevalence of hypertension with a low rate of awareness, treatment adherence, and control. The emergency department (ED) may represent a unique opportunity to improve hypertension screening, awareness, and linkage ... Full text Link to item Cite

Six-month blood pressure and glucose control among HIV-infected adults with elevated blood pressure and hyperglycemia in northern Tanzania: A prospective observational study.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2023 BACKGROUND: People with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa are increasingly developing age-related comorbidities. The purpose of this prospective observational study was to describe 6-month outcomes among Tanzanians with HIV and elevated blood pressure or hyperglyc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Longitudinal ECG changes among adults with HIV in Tanzania: A prospective cohort study.

Journal Article PLOS Glob Public Health · 2023 The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rising among people with HIV (PWH) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Despite the utility of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in screening for CVD, there is limited data regarding longitudinal ECG changes among PWH in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Patient-level interventions to reduce alcohol-related harms in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-summary.

Journal Article PLoS Med · April 2022 BACKGROUND: Disease and disability from alcohol use disproportionately impact people in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While varied interventions have been shown to reduce alcohol use in high-income countries, their efficacy in LMICs has not bee ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and Correlates of Ischemic ECG Findings among Adults With and Without HIV in Tanzania.

Journal Article Glob Heart · 2022 INTRODUCTION: HIV confers increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but there has been little study of ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) findings among people with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence of ischemic ECG findings ... Full text Link to item Cite

Incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Northern Tanzania: A Modeling Approach Within a Prospective Observational Study.

Journal Article J Am Heart Assoc · August 3, 2021 Background Rigorous incidence data for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in sub-Saharan Africa are lacking. Consequently, modeling studies based on limited data have suggested that the burden of AMI and AMI-associated mortality in sub-Saharan Africa is low ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Hypertension Care for People With HIV in Tanzania: Provider Perspectives and Opportunities for Improvement.

Journal Article J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care · 2021 One in three people with HIV (PWH) has hypertension. However, most hypertensive PWH in sub-Saharan Africa are unaware of their hypertension diagnosis and are not on treatment. To better understand barriers to hypertension care faced by PWH, we interviewed ... Full text Link to item Cite

Acute myocardial infarction under-diagnosis and mortality in a Tanzanian emergency department: A prospective observational study.

Journal Article Am Heart J · August 2020 BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that under-diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may be common in sub-Saharan Africa. Prospective studies of routine AMI screening among patients presenting to emergency departments in sub-Saharan Africa are l ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The burden of acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, and stroke among emergency department admissions in Tanzania: A retrospective observational study.

Journal Article Afr J Emerg Med · December 2019 INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa is substantial and growing. Much remains to be learned about the relative burden of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), heart failure, and stroke on emergency departments and hospital ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Tearing chest pain in adult male

Journal Article Visual Journal of Emergency Medicine · July 1, 2019 Full text Cite

Self-medication with non-prescribed pharmaceutical agents in an area of low malaria transmission in northern Tanzania: a community-based survey.

Journal Article Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg · April 1, 2019 BACKGROUND: Self-treatment with antimicrobials is common in sub-Saharan Africa. Little is known about the prevalence of this practice where malaria transmission intensity is low, and little is known about the prevalence of self-treatment with other medicat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Knowledge of myocardial infarction symptoms and perceptions of self-risk in Tanzania.

Journal Article Am Heart J · April 2019 BACKGROUND: Little is known about community knowledge of myocardial infarction symptoms and perceptions of self-risk in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A community survey was conducted in northern Tanzania, where the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors ... Full text Link to item Cite

The burden of hypertension in the emergency department and linkage to care: A prospective cohort study in Tanzania.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2019 OBJECTIVES: Globally, hypertension affects one billion people and disproportionately burdens low-and middle-income countries. Despite the high disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa, optimal care models for diagnosing and treating hypertension have not been ... Full text Link to item Cite

Perceptions of chest pain and healthcare seeking behavior for chest pain in northern Tanzania: A community-based survey.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2019 BACKGROUND: Little is known about community perceptions of chest pain and healthcare seeking behavior for chest pain in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A two-stage randomized population-based cluster survey with selection proportional to population size was p ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Burden of Hypertension and Diabetes in an Emergency Department in Northern Tanzania.

Journal Article Ethn Dis · 2019 INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the burden of hypertension and diabetes on emergency department (ED) utilization and hospitalizations in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A retrospective review of adult ED patients in northern Tanzania was performed from Se ... Full text Link to item Cite

Epidemiology of hypertension in Northern Tanzania: a community-based mixed-methods study.

Journal Article BMJ Open · November 9, 2017 INTRODUCTION: Sub-Saharan Africa is particularly vulnerable to the growing global burden of hypertension, but epidemiological studies are limited and barriers to optimal management are poorly understood. Therefore, we undertook a community-based mixed-meth ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Environmental Hyperthermia in Prehospital Patients with Major Traumatic Brain Injury.

Journal Article J Emerg Med · September 2015 BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in an estimated 1.7 million emergency department visits each year in the United States. These injuries frequently occur outside, leaving injured individuals exposed to environmental temperature extremes befo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hypertension, pre-hypertension, and associated risk factors in a subsistent farmer community in remote rural central India

Journal Article Journal of Public Health (Germany) · June 1, 2013 Aim: Eighty percent of global burden of hypertension is in low-income and middle-income areas. We aimed to assess the point prevalence of hypertension, pre-hypertension, associated risk factors, and awareness about high blood pressure in a subsistent farme ... Full text Cite

Munchausen's syndrome.

Journal Article Mil Med · May 1978 Link to item Cite