Electrochemical disinfection of human urine for water-free and additive-free toilets using boron-doped diamond electrodes
We report the development of an electrochemical disinfection system for human urine, which does not require the addition of any external water or chemical reagents. It is designed to minimize energy consumption so that it may derive its energy from solar panels. The system will be part of a modular outdoor toilet for use in developing countries. The system was tested with a physiological saline solution and an organic dye to determine minimum-energy operating conditions. Disinfection was then quantified using synthetic urine and Escherichia coli (E. Coli) as indicator organisms. The colony forming unit (CFU) count of E. Coli was reduced from >109 CFU/100 mL to within World Health Organization permissible limits after treatment. Effects of suspended fecal matter on disinfection efficiency were also studied. © The Electrochemical Society.