Cross-Cultural and Cross-National Parenting Perspectives
This chapter focuses on understanding how culture and poverty jointly influence parenting. Depending on cultural, national, and socioeconomic contexts, parents' attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors may differ, and specific forms of parenting may have different implications for children's development. Poverty can make it more difficult for parents to promote children's survival and development, protection from abuse and exploitation, and participation in making decisions that affect their lives. Both culture and poverty can affect the ways that parents show love and acceptance to children, stimulate children's cognitive development, teach them to be well-functioning members of society, and manage children's behavior. Ignoring cultural factors can lead to overgeneralizations about parenting. Precautions in research designs are needed to assess parenting in culturally valid ways that apply across nations. Parenting interventions are more effective when they are culturally sensitive. Culture and poverty often are confounded, making it important to consider both in attempts to understand parenting and children's development.