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Variation in prevalence of myopia between generations of migrant indians living in Singapore.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Pan, C-W; Zheng, Y-F; Wong, T-Y; Lavanya, R; Wu, R-Y; Gazzard, G; Saw, S-M
Published in: Am J Ophthalmol
August 2012

PURPOSE: To assess the influence of factors related to migration and acculturation on myopia in migrant Indians in Singapore. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 3400 Singaporean Indians (75.6% response rate) aged over 40 years participated in this study. Information regarding country of birth, migration age, and language of interview were collected from interviews. Indians born outside of Singapore were defined as "first-generation" immigrants, while Indians born in Singapore were defined as "second-generation (or higher)" immigrants. Refraction was determined by autorefraction and refined by subjective refraction. Ocular biometry including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal radius (CR) were measured by partial coherence interferometry. Myopia and high myopia were defined as spherical equivalents (SE) of less than -0.5 diopter (D) for myopia, and < -5 D for high myopia, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of myopia (30.2% vs 23.4 %) and high myopia (4.8% vs 2.5%) were higher in second-generation immigrants compared with first-generation immigrants. Second-generation immigrants had longer AL (23.50 mm vs 23.37 mm, P = .004) than first-generation immigrants after multivariate adjustment. The excess prevalence of myopia was reduced by 37.5% but remained statistically significant (P = .02) after further controlling for educational level. Among first-generation immigrants, those migrating to Singapore before the age of 21 had significantly higher prevalence of myopia (odds ratio [OR]: 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32, 2.59) and longer AL (regression coefficient: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.43) than those migrating after 21 years of age. Also, first-generation immigrants interviewed in English had higher prevalence of myopia (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.17) than their non-English-interviewed counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of myopia among second-generation (or higher) Indian immigrants in Singapore is higher than first-generation immigrants. Country-specific environmental factors may be important for the increasing prevalence of myopia in Asia.

Duke Scholars

Published In

Am J Ophthalmol

DOI

EISSN

1879-1891

Publication Date

August 2012

Volume

154

Issue

2

Start / End Page

376 / 381.e1

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Singapore
  • Risk Factors
  • Refraction, Ocular
  • Prevalence
  • Ophthalmology & Optometry
  • Myopia
  • Middle Aged
  • Male
  • India
  • Humans
 

Citation

APA
Chicago
ICMJE
MLA
NLM
Pan, C.-W., Zheng, Y.-F., Wong, T.-Y., Lavanya, R., Wu, R.-Y., Gazzard, G., & Saw, S.-M. (2012). Variation in prevalence of myopia between generations of migrant indians living in Singapore. Am J Ophthalmol, 154(2), 376-381.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2012.02.027
Pan, Chen-Wei, Ying-Feng Zheng, Tien-Yin Wong, Raghavan Lavanya, Ren-Yi Wu, Gus Gazzard, and Seang-Mei Saw. “Variation in prevalence of myopia between generations of migrant indians living in Singapore.Am J Ophthalmol 154, no. 2 (August 2012): 376-381.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2012.02.027.
Pan C-W, Zheng Y-F, Wong T-Y, Lavanya R, Wu R-Y, Gazzard G, et al. Variation in prevalence of myopia between generations of migrant indians living in Singapore. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012 Aug;154(2):376-381.e1.
Pan, Chen-Wei, et al. “Variation in prevalence of myopia between generations of migrant indians living in Singapore.Am J Ophthalmol, vol. 154, no. 2, Aug. 2012, pp. 376-381.e1. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2012.02.027.
Pan C-W, Zheng Y-F, Wong T-Y, Lavanya R, Wu R-Y, Gazzard G, Saw S-M. Variation in prevalence of myopia between generations of migrant indians living in Singapore. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012 Aug;154(2):376-381.e1.
Journal cover image

Published In

Am J Ophthalmol

DOI

EISSN

1879-1891

Publication Date

August 2012

Volume

154

Issue

2

Start / End Page

376 / 381.e1

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Singapore
  • Risk Factors
  • Refraction, Ocular
  • Prevalence
  • Ophthalmology & Optometry
  • Myopia
  • Middle Aged
  • Male
  • India
  • Humans