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The Prevalence and Types of Glaucoma in an Urban Chinese Population: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Baskaran, M; Foo, RC; Cheng, C-Y; Narayanaswamy, AK; Zheng, Y-F; Wu, R; Saw, S-M; Foster, PJ; Wong, T-Y; Aung, T
Published in: JAMA Ophthalmol
August 2015

IMPORTANCE: Glaucoma represents a major public health challenge in an aging population. The Tanjong Pagar Eye Study reported the prevalence and risk factors of glaucoma in a Singapore Chinese population in 1997, which established the higher rates of blindness in this population. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for glaucoma among Chinese adults in Singapore and to compare the results with those of the 1997 study. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a population-based survey of 4605 eligible individuals, we selected 3353 Chinese adults 40 years or older from the southwestern part of Singapore. Participants underwent examination at a single tertiary care research institute from February 9, 2009, through December 19, 2011. EXPOSURES: All participants underwent slitlamp ophthalmic examination, applanation tonometry, measurement of central corneal thickness, gonioscopy, and a dilated fundus examination. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Glaucoma as defined by the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology guidelines and age-standardized prevalence estimates computed as per the 2010 Singapore Chinese census. Blindness was defined as logMAR visual acuity of 1.00 (Snellen equivalent, 20/200 or worse). RESULTS: Of the 3353 respondents, 134 (4.0%) had glaucoma, including primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in 57 (1.7%), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in 49 (1.5%), and secondary glaucoma in 28 (0.8%). The age-standardized prevalence (95% CI) of glaucoma was 3.2% (2.7%-3.9%); POAG, 1.4% (1.1%-1.9%); and PACG, 1.2% (0.9%-1.6%). In a multivariate model, POAG was associated with being older and male and having a higher intraocular pressure. Of the 134 participants with glaucoma, 114 (85.1%; 95% CI, 78.1%-90.1%) were not aware of their diagnosis. Prevalence (95% CI) of blindness caused by secondary glaucoma was 14.3% (5.7%-31.5%), followed by 10.2% (4.4%-21.8%) for PACG and 8.8% (3.8%-18.9%) for POAG. We could not identify a difference in the prevalence of glaucoma compared with the 3.2% reported in 1997 (difference, -0.04%; 95% CI, -1.2 to 1.2; P = .97). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The prevalence of glaucoma among Singapore Chinese likely ranges from 2.7% to 3.9%, with secondary glaucoma being the most visually debilitating type. We could not identify a difference compared with previous studies approximately 12 years earlier. We report a high proportion of previously undiagnosed disease, suggesting the need to increase public awareness of this potentially blinding condition.

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Published In

JAMA Ophthalmol

DOI

EISSN

2168-6173

Publication Date

August 2015

Volume

133

Issue

8

Start / End Page

874 / 880

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Visual Acuity
  • Urban Population
  • Tonometry, Ocular
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Singapore
  • Sex Distribution
  • Risk Factors
  • Prevalence
  • Middle Aged
  • Male
 

Citation

APA
Chicago
ICMJE
MLA
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Baskaran, M., Foo, R. C., Cheng, C.-Y., Narayanaswamy, A. K., Zheng, Y.-F., Wu, R., … Aung, T. (2015). The Prevalence and Types of Glaucoma in an Urban Chinese Population: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmol, 133(8), 874–880. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.1110
Baskaran, Mani, Reuben C. Foo, Ching-Yu Cheng, Arun K. Narayanaswamy, Ying-Feng Zheng, Renyi Wu, Seang-Mei Saw, Paul J. Foster, Tien-Yin Wong, and Tin Aung. “The Prevalence and Types of Glaucoma in an Urban Chinese Population: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study.JAMA Ophthalmol 133, no. 8 (August 2015): 874–80. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.1110.
Baskaran M, Foo RC, Cheng C-Y, Narayanaswamy AK, Zheng Y-F, Wu R, et al. The Prevalence and Types of Glaucoma in an Urban Chinese Population: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015 Aug;133(8):874–80.
Baskaran, Mani, et al. “The Prevalence and Types of Glaucoma in an Urban Chinese Population: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study.JAMA Ophthalmol, vol. 133, no. 8, Aug. 2015, pp. 874–80. Pubmed, doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.1110.
Baskaran M, Foo RC, Cheng C-Y, Narayanaswamy AK, Zheng Y-F, Wu R, Saw S-M, Foster PJ, Wong T-Y, Aung T. The Prevalence and Types of Glaucoma in an Urban Chinese Population: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015 Aug;133(8):874–880.

Published In

JAMA Ophthalmol

DOI

EISSN

2168-6173

Publication Date

August 2015

Volume

133

Issue

8

Start / End Page

874 / 880

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Visual Acuity
  • Urban Population
  • Tonometry, Ocular
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Singapore
  • Sex Distribution
  • Risk Factors
  • Prevalence
  • Middle Aged
  • Male