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Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Bourne, RRA; Flaxman, SR; Braithwaite, T; Cicinelli, MV; Das, A; Jonas, JB; Keeffe, J; Kempen, JH; Leasher, J; Limburg, H; Naidoo, K; Wong, TY ...
Published in: Lancet Glob Health
September 2017

BACKGROUND: Global and regional prevalence estimates for blindness and vision impairment are important for the development of public health policies. We aimed to provide global estimates, trends, and projections of global blindness and vision impairment. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based datasets relevant to global vision impairment and blindness that were published between 1980 and 2015. We fitted hierarchical models to estimate the prevalence (by age, country, and sex), in 2015, of mild visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/12 to 6/18 inclusive), moderate to severe visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18 to 3/60 inclusive), blindness (presenting visual acuity worse than 3/60), and functional presbyopia (defined as presenting near vision worse than N6 or N8 at 40 cm when best-corrected distance visual acuity was better than 6/12). FINDINGS: Globally, of the 7·33 billion people alive in 2015, an estimated 36·0 million (80% uncertainty interval [UI] 12·9-65·4) were blind (crude prevalence 0·48%; 80% UI 0·17-0·87; 56% female), 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5-359·1) people had moderate to severe visual impairment (2·95%, 80% UI 1·34-4·89; 55% female), and 188·5 million (80% UI 64·5-350·2) had mild visual impairment (2·57%, 80% UI 0·88-4·77; 54% female). Functional presbyopia affected an estimated 1094·7 million (80% UI 581·1-1686·5) people aged 35 years and older, with 666·7 million (80% UI 364·9-997·6) being aged 50 years or older. The estimated number of blind people increased by 17·6%, from 30·6 million (80% UI 9·9-57·3) in 1990 to 36·0 million (80% UI 12·9-65·4) in 2015. This change was attributable to three factors, namely an increase because of population growth (38·4%), population ageing after accounting for population growth (34·6%), and reduction in age-specific prevalence (-36·7%). The number of people with moderate and severe visual impairment also increased, from 159·9 million (80% UI 68·3-270·0) in 1990 to 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5-359·1) in 2015. INTERPRETATION: There is an ongoing reduction in the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and visual impairment, yet the growth and ageing of the world's population is causing a substantial increase in number of people affected. These observations, plus a very large contribution from uncorrected presbyopia, highlight the need to scale up vision impairment alleviation efforts at all levels. FUNDING: Brien Holden Vision Institute.

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Published In

Lancet Glob Health

DOI

EISSN

2214-109X

Publication Date

September 2017

Volume

5

Issue

9

Start / End Page

e888 / e897

Location

England

Related Subject Headings

  • Visual Acuity
  • Vision Disorders
  • Prevalence
  • Humans
  • Global Health
  • Blindness
  • 4206 Public health
  • 4203 Health services and systems
  • 4202 Epidemiology
  • 1117 Public Health and Health Services
 

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Bourne, R. R. A., Flaxman, S. R., Braithwaite, T., Cicinelli, M. V., Das, A., Jonas, J. B., … Vision Loss Expert Group, . (2017). Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Glob Health, 5(9), e888–e897. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30293-0
Bourne, Rupert R. A., Seth R. Flaxman, Tasanee Braithwaite, Maria V. Cicinelli, Aditi Das, Jost B. Jonas, Jill Keeffe, et al. “Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Lancet Glob Health 5, no. 9 (September 2017): e888–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30293-0.
Bourne RRA, Flaxman SR, Braithwaite T, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Jonas JB, et al. Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2017 Sep;5(9):e888–97.
Bourne, Rupert R. A., et al. “Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Lancet Glob Health, vol. 5, no. 9, Sept. 2017, pp. e888–97. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30293-0.
Bourne RRA, Flaxman SR, Braithwaite T, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Jonas JB, Keeffe J, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester A, Stevens GA, Tahhan N, Wong TY, Taylor HR, Vision Loss Expert Group. Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2017 Sep;5(9):e888–e897.
Journal cover image

Published In

Lancet Glob Health

DOI

EISSN

2214-109X

Publication Date

September 2017

Volume

5

Issue

9

Start / End Page

e888 / e897

Location

England

Related Subject Headings

  • Visual Acuity
  • Vision Disorders
  • Prevalence
  • Humans
  • Global Health
  • Blindness
  • 4206 Public health
  • 4203 Health services and systems
  • 4202 Epidemiology
  • 1117 Public Health and Health Services