Male antisocial behaviour in adolescence and beyond.
Male antisocial behavior is concentrated in the adolescent period of the life course, as documented by the curve of crime over age. This article reviews recent evidence regarding the hypothesis that the age-crime curve conceals two groups with different causes. Life-course persistent males show extreme, pervasive, persistent antisocial behavior from early childhood to adulthood. They are hypothesized to be rare, with pathological risk factors and poor life outcomes. In contrast, adolescence-limited males show similar levels of antisocial behavior but primarily during the adolescent stage of development. They are hypothesized to be common and normative, whereas abstainers from offending are rare. This article recaps the taxonomy's 25-year history, concluding that it is standing the test of time in research, and making an impact on policy in early-years prevention and juvenile justice. Research is needed into how the taxonomy relates to neuroscience, health, genetics, and changes in modern crime, including digital crime.