Skip to main content
Journal cover image

Formaldehyde and leukemia: epidemiology, potential mechanisms, and implications for risk assessment.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Zhang, L; Freeman, LEB; Nakamura, J; Hecht, SS; Vandenberg, JJ; Smith, MT; Sonawane, BR
Published in: Environmental and molecular mutagenesis
April 2010

Formaldehyde is widely used in the United States and other countries. Occupational and environmental exposures to formaldehyde may be associated with an increased risk of leukemia in exposed individuals. However, risk assessment of formaldehyde and leukemia has been challenging due to inconsistencies in human and animal studies and the lack of a known mechanism for leukemia induction. Here, we provide a summary of the symposium at the Environmental Mutagen Society Meeting in 2008, which focused on the epidemiology of formaldehyde and leukemia, potential mechanisms, and implication for risk assessment, with emphasis on future directions in multidisciplinary formaldehyde research. Updated results of two of the three largest industrial cohort studies of formaldehyde-exposed workers have shown positive associations with leukemia, particularly myeloid leukemia, and a recent meta-analysis of studies to date supports this association. Recent mechanistic studies have shown the formation of formaldehyde-induced DNA adducts and characterized the essential DNA repair pathways that mitigate formaldehyde toxicity. The implications of the updated findings for the design of future studies to more effectively assess the risk of leukemia arising from formaldehyde exposure were discussed and specific recommendations were made. A toxicogenomic approach in experimental models and human exposure studies, together with the measurement of biomarkers of internal exposure, such as formaldehyde-DNA and protein adducts, should prove fruitful. It was recognized that increased communication among scientists who perform epidemiology, toxicology, biology, and risk assessment could enhance the design of future studies, which could ultimately reduce uncertainty in the risk assessment of formaldehyde and leukemia.

Duke Scholars

Altmetric Attention Stats
Dimensions Citation Stats

Published In

Environmental and molecular mutagenesis

DOI

EISSN

1098-2280

ISSN

0893-6692

Publication Date

April 2010

Volume

51

Issue

3

Start / End Page

181 / 191

Related Subject Headings

  • Toxicology
  • Risk Assessment
  • Occupational Exposure
  • Mutagens
  • Leukemia
  • Humans
  • Formaldehyde
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Environmental Exposure
  • DNA Adducts
 

Citation

APA
Chicago
ICMJE
MLA
NLM
Zhang, L., Freeman, L. E. B., Nakamura, J., Hecht, S. S., Vandenberg, J. J., Smith, M. T., & Sonawane, B. R. (2010). Formaldehyde and leukemia: epidemiology, potential mechanisms, and implications for risk assessment. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 51(3), 181–191. https://doi.org/10.1002/em.20534
Zhang, Luoping, Laura E Beane Freeman, Jun Nakamura, Stephen S. Hecht, John J. Vandenberg, Martyn T. Smith, and Babasaheb R. Sonawane. “Formaldehyde and leukemia: epidemiology, potential mechanisms, and implications for risk assessment.Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 51, no. 3 (April 2010): 181–91. https://doi.org/10.1002/em.20534.
Zhang L, Freeman LEB, Nakamura J, Hecht SS, Vandenberg JJ, Smith MT, et al. Formaldehyde and leukemia: epidemiology, potential mechanisms, and implications for risk assessment. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis. 2010 Apr;51(3):181–91.
Zhang, Luoping, et al. “Formaldehyde and leukemia: epidemiology, potential mechanisms, and implications for risk assessment.Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, vol. 51, no. 3, Apr. 2010, pp. 181–91. Epmc, doi:10.1002/em.20534.
Zhang L, Freeman LEB, Nakamura J, Hecht SS, Vandenberg JJ, Smith MT, Sonawane BR. Formaldehyde and leukemia: epidemiology, potential mechanisms, and implications for risk assessment. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis. 2010 Apr;51(3):181–191.
Journal cover image

Published In

Environmental and molecular mutagenesis

DOI

EISSN

1098-2280

ISSN

0893-6692

Publication Date

April 2010

Volume

51

Issue

3

Start / End Page

181 / 191

Related Subject Headings

  • Toxicology
  • Risk Assessment
  • Occupational Exposure
  • Mutagens
  • Leukemia
  • Humans
  • Formaldehyde
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Environmental Exposure
  • DNA Adducts