Diagnosis and Management of Tumor-induced Osteomalacia: Perspectives From Clinical Experience.
PURPOSE: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome of abnormal phosphate and vitamin D metabolism caused by typically small endocrine tumors that secrete fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). TIO is characterized clinically by progressive musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, proximal muscle weakness, and multiple fractures, leading to long-term disability. Misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis are common because of the nonspecific symptoms, and several years may elapse before patients receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Thus, it is vital that awareness of the appropriate recognition and management of TIO is increased among healthcare professionals who may encounter patients with suspected TIO. METHODS: A roundtable meeting was held on 10 January 2020 in Dallas, TX, USA, to gather perspectives on the diagnosis and treatment of TIO. The following topics were considered: clinical presentation, patient history, differential diagnosis, laboratory assessment, imaging, venous sampling, and treatment. RESULTS: This report provides a summary of our collective experiences in the management of TIO. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory tests are mandatory to expedite TIO diagnosis and should include measurement of fasting serum phosphorus, renal phosphate reabsorption, serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and serum FGF23 levels. Functional and anatomical imaging are essential to locate the FGF23-secreting tumor(s) causing TIO. Surgical resection is often a curative treatment when the tumor can be localized; however, better management of patients who cannot be operated on with targeted therapies is needed. Further efforts to increase awareness of TIO within the medical community, and education on recommended diagnostic and treatment pathways are required to improve the management of this debilitating disease.