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Observational Study of the Association between Air Cadmium Exposure and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness at Diagnosis among a Nationwide Retrospective Cohort of 230,540 Patients in the United States.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Vijayakumar, V; Abern, MR; Jagai, JS; Kajdacsy-Balla, A
Published in: International journal of environmental research and public health
August 2021

Although studies have investigated cadmium and prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality, the role of cadmium in PC progression might be more clinically relevant. In this observational study, we assessed the association between air cadmium exposure and PC aggressiveness, with PC stage defined as metastatic or localized and Gleason grade defined as high (Gleason score ≥ 8) or low (Gleason score ≤ 6) among PC patients from the 2010-2014 US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The 2005 and 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment provided county-level air cadmium concentrations. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and were calculated using random intercept mixed effects logistic regression, comparing the 80th to 20th percentile of exposure. We adjusted for age, sociodemographic status, smoking prevalence, and overall air quality at the county level, and stratified by race, age, and degree of urbanization. The cohort consisted of 230,540 cases from 493 counties. Strong associations were observed in nonmetropolitan, urban areas: (OR 1.26, CI 1.14-1.39) for metastatic vs. localized and (OR 1.41, CI 1.27-1.57) for high- vs. low-grade PC where 40 million Americans reside. This study may be hypothesis-generating to inform future studies and public health measures.

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Published In

International journal of environmental research and public health

DOI

EISSN

1660-4601

ISSN

1661-7827

Publication Date

August 2021

Volume

18

Issue

16

Start / End Page

8333

Related Subject Headings

  • United States
  • Toxicology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Prostatic Neoplasms
  • Male
  • Humans
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cadmium
 

Citation

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Vijayakumar, V., Abern, M. R., Jagai, J. S., & Kajdacsy-Balla, A. (2021). Observational Study of the Association between Air Cadmium Exposure and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness at Diagnosis among a Nationwide Retrospective Cohort of 230,540 Patients in the United States. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(16), 8333. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168333
Vijayakumar, Vishwaarth, Michael R. Abern, Jyotsna S. Jagai, and André Kajdacsy-Balla. “Observational Study of the Association between Air Cadmium Exposure and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness at Diagnosis among a Nationwide Retrospective Cohort of 230,540 Patients in the United States.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 16 (August 2021): 8333. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168333.
Vijayakumar V, Abern MR, Jagai JS, Kajdacsy-Balla A. Observational Study of the Association between Air Cadmium Exposure and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness at Diagnosis among a Nationwide Retrospective Cohort of 230,540 Patients in the United States. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021 Aug;18(16):8333.
Vijayakumar, Vishwaarth, et al. “Observational Study of the Association between Air Cadmium Exposure and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness at Diagnosis among a Nationwide Retrospective Cohort of 230,540 Patients in the United States.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 18, no. 16, Aug. 2021, p. 8333. Epmc, doi:10.3390/ijerph18168333.
Vijayakumar V, Abern MR, Jagai JS, Kajdacsy-Balla A. Observational Study of the Association between Air Cadmium Exposure and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness at Diagnosis among a Nationwide Retrospective Cohort of 230,540 Patients in the United States. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021 Aug;18(16):8333.

Published In

International journal of environmental research and public health

DOI

EISSN

1660-4601

ISSN

1661-7827

Publication Date

August 2021

Volume

18

Issue

16

Start / End Page

8333

Related Subject Headings

  • United States
  • Toxicology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Prostatic Neoplasms
  • Male
  • Humans
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cadmium