Hematology of childhood and adolescence
Hematologic homeostasis requires an intricate interaction of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and coagulation factors. Normal parameters vary with age, sex, and race. Underlying causes for hematologic abnormalities in children may range from common benign phenomena such as self-limited cytopenias following viral infections, to rarer and more life-threatening entities like childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Overlapping presenting features among these disorders demand thoughtful analysis and clinical acumen. Early recognition and intervention can often minimize complications and decrease long-term morbidity and mortality. In the majority of cases, diagnosis and management of these conditions will require consultation with a pediatric hematologist. Non-malignant quantitative and qualitative hematologic disorders are discussed in this section and have been curated with a general pediatric audience in mind. Given the relatively large number of disorders and the broad scope of the chapter, tables have been utilized to provide lists of disorders within categories, and not all disorders are discussed within the text.