Oncology of childhood and adolescence
Childhood and adolescent cancer are broadly categorized into leukemia, lymphoma, extracranial solid tumors, and central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Many of these cancers can present as oncologic emergencies, which are important to recognize. Supportive care for these patients is critical, including symptom management and blood product transfusions. Cancer predisposition syndromes can increase the risk of certain pediatric cancers. Prognosis depends on the pathology, anatomic location, age, and initial response to treatment. According to the National Cancer Institute, the 5-year survival rate for childhood cancer from 2010 to 2016 was 84.1% in children and 85.3% in adolescents. The duration of treatment is variable and dependent on several factors such as cancer type, age of patient, site of disease, molecular features, and staging. In this article, we will review different types of pediatric cancers, common cancer predisposition syndromes, oncologic emergencies, transfusion medicine, and chemotherapy related toxicities.