Kidney Function and Aortic Stiffness, Pulsatility, and Endothelial Function in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: The relation of vascular stiffness, endothelial function, and kidney function is incompletely elucidated in African Americans. Our hypothesis was that increased vascular stiffness and endothelial dysfunction are associated with low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria in African Americans. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort analysis of data from the Jackson Heart Study. SETTINGS & PATIENTS: 2,244 Jackson Heart Study participants (2012-2017 after Exam 3) who had undergone noninvasive hemodynamic assessment using arterial tonometry. PREDICTORS: Baseline carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, pulsatile hemodynamics forward wave amplitude, and hyperemic brachial artery flow were measured. Reduced eGFR was defined as eGFR between 15 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. OUTCOMES: Prevalent albuminuria, urinary albumin-creatinine ratio. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: 2-sample t test for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables in addition to logistic and linear regression models to assess the risk for chronic kidney disease with each proposed hemodynamic variable. RESULTS: Among 2,244 participants, mean age was 66 ± 11 years and 64% were women. Reduced eGFR was present in 233 (10.4%), and elevated urinary albumin-creatinine ratio, in 232 (10.4%). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was associated with the presence of reduced eGFR (OR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.08-1.75] per SD; P = 0.01) and with prevalent albuminuria (OR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.32-2.11]; P < 0.001). Higher forward wave amplitude was significantly associated with prevalent albuminuria (OR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.14-1.65]; P = 0.001). LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional analyses cannot inform causality. CONCLUSIONS: Higher arterial stiffness and pulsatility are associated with higher odds of reduced eGFR in African Americans. Future studies should focus on whether improving arterial stiffness contributes to kidney protection in African Americans.