Hallux valgus is a common condition that results from a complex positional deformity of the first ray. The bunion or medial prominence that results from the lateral deviation and pronation of the hallux is only one component of the 3-dimensional deformity. Hallux valgus can lead to considerable pain and altered joint mechanics. The precise biomechanical etiology remains under debate. Predisposing factors include female sex, age, constricting footwear, and family history. Metatarsus adductus, equinus contracture, hammertoe deformity, and pes planus often coexist with hallux valgus. Nonoperative treatment involves patient education, shoe modifications, toe pads and positioning devices, and activity modifications. Surgery is considered in patients who fail nonoperative treatment with the goal of pain relief, correction of the deformity, improved first ray stability, and improved quality of life. More than 100 different procedures have been described to treat hallux valgus; they include combinations of soft tissue balancing, metatarsal osteotomies, and fusion of either the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) or tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint. The choice of procedures depends on the severity and location of the deformity as well as surgeon preference. Recent advances in operative techniques include minimally invasive surgery and correction of rotational deformity.