Skip to main content
construction release_alert
Scholars@Duke will be undergoing maintenance April 11-15. Some features may be unavailable during this time.
cancel
Journal cover image

Evolution of mixed strategies of plant defense allocation against natural enemies.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Fornoni, J; Núñez-Farfán, J; Valverde, PL; Rausher, MD
Published in: Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
August 2004

In this study we present a simple optimization model for the evolution of defensive strategies (tolerance and resistance) of plants against their natural enemies. The model specifically evaluates the consequences of introducing variable costs and benefits of tolerance and resistance and nonlinear cost-and-benefit functions for tolerance and resistance. Incorporating these assumptions, the present model of plant defense predicts different evolutionary scenarios, not expected by previous work. Basically, the presence of an adaptive peak corresponding to intermediate levels of allocation to tolerance and resistance can arise when the shape parameter of the cost function is higher than the corresponding of the benefit function. The presence of two alternatives peaks of maximum tolerance and maximum resistance occurs only when benefits of tolerance and resistance interact less than additive. Finally, the presence of one peak of maximum resistance or maximum tolerance depends on the relative values of the magnitude of costs for tolerance and resistance. An important outcome of our model is that under a plausible set of conditions, variable costs of tolerance and resistance can represent an important aspect involved in the maintenance of intermediate levels of tolerance and resistance, and in favoring adaptive divergence in plant defensive strategies among populations. The model offers a framework for future theoretical and empirical work toward understanding spatial variation in levels of allocation to different defensive strategies.

Duke Scholars

Published In

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution

DOI

EISSN

1558-5646

ISSN

0014-3820

Publication Date

August 2004

Volume

58

Issue

8

Start / End Page

1685 / 1695

Related Subject Headings

  • Plant Physiological Phenomena
  • Models, Biological
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Ecosystem
  • Biological Evolution
  • Adaptation, Biological
  • 3104 Evolutionary biology
  • 3103 Ecology
  • 0603 Evolutionary Biology
  • 0602 Ecology
 

Citation

APA
Chicago
ICMJE
MLA
NLM
Fornoni, J., Núñez-Farfán, J., Valverde, P. L., & Rausher, M. D. (2004). Evolution of mixed strategies of plant defense allocation against natural enemies. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution, 58(8), 1685–1695. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2004.tb00454.x
Fornoni, Juan, Juan Núñez-Farfán, Pedro Luis Valverde, and Mark D. Rausher. “Evolution of mixed strategies of plant defense allocation against natural enemies.Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution 58, no. 8 (August 2004): 1685–95. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2004.tb00454.x.
Fornoni J, Núñez-Farfán J, Valverde PL, Rausher MD. Evolution of mixed strategies of plant defense allocation against natural enemies. Evolution; international journal of organic evolution. 2004 Aug;58(8):1685–95.
Fornoni, Juan, et al. “Evolution of mixed strategies of plant defense allocation against natural enemies.Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution, vol. 58, no. 8, Aug. 2004, pp. 1685–95. Epmc, doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2004.tb00454.x.
Fornoni J, Núñez-Farfán J, Valverde PL, Rausher MD. Evolution of mixed strategies of plant defense allocation against natural enemies. Evolution; international journal of organic evolution. 2004 Aug;58(8):1685–1695.
Journal cover image

Published In

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution

DOI

EISSN

1558-5646

ISSN

0014-3820

Publication Date

August 2004

Volume

58

Issue

8

Start / End Page

1685 / 1695

Related Subject Headings

  • Plant Physiological Phenomena
  • Models, Biological
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Ecosystem
  • Biological Evolution
  • Adaptation, Biological
  • 3104 Evolutionary biology
  • 3103 Ecology
  • 0603 Evolutionary Biology
  • 0602 Ecology