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Precise spatio-temporal regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway leads to petal spot formation in Clarkia gracilis (Onagraceae).

Publication ,  Journal Article
Martins, TR; Berg, JJ; Blinka, S; Rausher, MD; Baum, DA
Published in: The New phytologist
February 2013

Petal spots are widespread in angiosperms and are often implicated in pollinator attraction. Clarkia gracilis petals each have a single red-purple spot that contrasts against a pink background. The position and presence of spots in C. gracilis are determined by the epistatic interaction of alleles at two as yet unidentified loci. We used HPLC to identify the different pigments produced in the petals, and qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR to assay for spatio-temporal patterns of expression of different anthocyanin pathway genes. We found that spots contain different pigments from the remainder of the petal, being composed of cyanidin/peonidin-based, instead of malvidin-based anthocyanins. Expression assays of anthocyanin pathway genes showed that the dihydroflavonol-4-reductase 2 (Dfr2) gene has a spot-specific expression pattern and acts as a switch for spot production. Co-segregation analyses implicated the gene products of the P and I loci as trans-regulators of this switch. Spot pigments appear earlier in development as a result of early expression of Dfr2 and the flavonoid 3' hydroxylase 1 (F3'h1) gene. Pigments in the background appear later, as a result of later expression of Dfr1 and the flavonoid 3'-5' hydroxylase 1 (F3'5'h1) genes. The evolution of this spot production mechanism appears to have been facilitated by duplication of the Dfr gene and to have required substantial reworking of the anthocyanin pathway regulatory network.

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Published In

The New phytologist

DOI

EISSN

1469-8137

ISSN

1469-8137

Publication Date

February 2013

Volume

197

Issue

3

Start / End Page

958 / 969

Related Subject Headings

  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Plant Biology & Botany
  • Onagraceae
  • Genotype
  • Flowers
  • DNA, Plant
  • Crosses, Genetic
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
 

Citation

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Martins, T. R., Berg, J. J., Blinka, S., Rausher, M. D., & Baum, D. A. (2013). Precise spatio-temporal regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway leads to petal spot formation in Clarkia gracilis (Onagraceae). The New Phytologist, 197(3), 958–969. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12062
Martins, Talline R., Jeremy J. Berg, Steven Blinka, Mark D. Rausher, and David A. Baum. “Precise spatio-temporal regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway leads to petal spot formation in Clarkia gracilis (Onagraceae).The New Phytologist 197, no. 3 (February 2013): 958–69. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12062.
Martins TR, Berg JJ, Blinka S, Rausher MD, Baum DA. Precise spatio-temporal regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway leads to petal spot formation in Clarkia gracilis (Onagraceae). The New phytologist. 2013 Feb;197(3):958–69.
Martins, Talline R., et al. “Precise spatio-temporal regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway leads to petal spot formation in Clarkia gracilis (Onagraceae).The New Phytologist, vol. 197, no. 3, Feb. 2013, pp. 958–69. Epmc, doi:10.1111/nph.12062.
Martins TR, Berg JJ, Blinka S, Rausher MD, Baum DA. Precise spatio-temporal regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway leads to petal spot formation in Clarkia gracilis (Onagraceae). The New phytologist. 2013 Feb;197(3):958–969.
Journal cover image

Published In

The New phytologist

DOI

EISSN

1469-8137

ISSN

1469-8137

Publication Date

February 2013

Volume

197

Issue

3

Start / End Page

958 / 969

Related Subject Headings

  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Plant Biology & Botany
  • Onagraceae
  • Genotype
  • Flowers
  • DNA, Plant
  • Crosses, Genetic
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid