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Effect of chronic stress associated with unemployment on salivary cortisol: overall cortisol levels, diurnal rhythm, and acute stress reactivity.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Ockenfels, MC; Porter, L; Smyth, J; Kirschbaum, C; Hellhammer, DH; Stone, AA
Published in: Psychosom Med
1995

This study examined the effect of chronic stress associated with unemployment on the magnitude of salivary cortisol excretion, on the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, and on cortisol reactivity to acute naturalistic stressors using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM). Employed (N = 60) and unemployed (N = 60) subjects were studied for 2 days. Subjects were beeped 6 times per day by a preprogrammed wristwatch to assess acute stressors; 25 minutes after each ESM-beep, subjects were beeped a second time for saliva samples. The groups did not differ in their overall cortisol excretion or in cortisol reactivity to acute daily stressors. Compared to employed subjects, unemployed subjects had a diurnal pattern of cortisol excretion with relatively higher morning and lower evening levels. Subjects' daily activities and their locations were associated with diurnal rhythm differences.

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Published In

Psychosom Med

DOI

ISSN

0033-3174

Publication Date

1995

Volume

57

Issue

5

Start / End Page

460 / 467

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Unemployment
  • Stress, Psychological
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Saliva
  • Psychiatry
  • Marital Status
  • Male
  • Hydrocortisone
  • Humans
  • Female
 

Citation

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Ockenfels, M. C., Porter, L., Smyth, J., Kirschbaum, C., Hellhammer, D. H., & Stone, A. A. (1995). Effect of chronic stress associated with unemployment on salivary cortisol: overall cortisol levels, diurnal rhythm, and acute stress reactivity. Psychosom Med, 57(5), 460–467. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006842-199509000-00008
Ockenfels, M. C., L. Porter, J. Smyth, C. Kirschbaum, D. H. Hellhammer, and A. A. Stone. “Effect of chronic stress associated with unemployment on salivary cortisol: overall cortisol levels, diurnal rhythm, and acute stress reactivity.Psychosom Med 57, no. 5 (1995): 460–67. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006842-199509000-00008.
Ockenfels MC, Porter L, Smyth J, Kirschbaum C, Hellhammer DH, Stone AA. Effect of chronic stress associated with unemployment on salivary cortisol: overall cortisol levels, diurnal rhythm, and acute stress reactivity. Psychosom Med. 1995;57(5):460–7.
Ockenfels, M. C., et al. “Effect of chronic stress associated with unemployment on salivary cortisol: overall cortisol levels, diurnal rhythm, and acute stress reactivity.Psychosom Med, vol. 57, no. 5, 1995, pp. 460–67. Pubmed, doi:10.1097/00006842-199509000-00008.
Ockenfels MC, Porter L, Smyth J, Kirschbaum C, Hellhammer DH, Stone AA. Effect of chronic stress associated with unemployment on salivary cortisol: overall cortisol levels, diurnal rhythm, and acute stress reactivity. Psychosom Med. 1995;57(5):460–467.

Published In

Psychosom Med

DOI

ISSN

0033-3174

Publication Date

1995

Volume

57

Issue

5

Start / End Page

460 / 467

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Unemployment
  • Stress, Psychological
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Saliva
  • Psychiatry
  • Marital Status
  • Male
  • Hydrocortisone
  • Humans
  • Female