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Ascaris suum, an intestinal parasite, produces morphine.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Goumon, Y; Casares, F; Pryor, S; Ferguson, L; Brownawell, B; Cadet, P; Rialas, CM; Welters, ID; Sonetti, D; Stefano, GB
Published in: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
July 2000

The parasitic worm Ascaris suum contains the opiate alkaloid morphine as determined by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The level of this material is 1168 +/- 278 ng/g worm wet weight. Furthermore, Ascaris maintained for 5 days contained a significant amount of morphine, as did their medium, demonstrating their ability to synthesize the opiate alkaloid. To determine whether the morphine was active, we exposed human monocytes to the material, and they immediately released nitric oxide in a naloxone-reversible manner. The anatomic distribution of morphine immunoreactivity reveals that the material is in the subcuticle layers and in the animals' nerve chords. Furthermore, as determined by RT-PCR, Ascaris does not express the transcript of the neuronal mu receptor. Failure to demonstrate the expression of this opioid receptor, as well as the morphine-like tissue localization in Ascaris, suggests that the endogenous morphine is intended for secretion into the microenvironment.

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Published In

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

DOI

EISSN

1550-6606

ISSN

0022-1767

Publication Date

July 2000

Volume

165

Issue

1

Start / End Page

339 / 343

Related Subject Headings

  • Swine
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Receptors, Opioid, mu
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Naloxone
  • Morphine
  • Monocytes
  • Intestines
  • Immunology
  • Humans
 

Citation

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Goumon, Y., Casares, F., Pryor, S., Ferguson, L., Brownawell, B., Cadet, P., … Stefano, G. B. (2000). Ascaris suum, an intestinal parasite, produces morphine. Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 165(1), 339–343. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.165.1.339
Goumon, Y., F. Casares, S. Pryor, L. Ferguson, B. Brownawell, P. Cadet, C. M. Rialas, I. D. Welters, D. Sonetti, and G. B. Stefano. “Ascaris suum, an intestinal parasite, produces morphine.Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 165, no. 1 (July 2000): 339–43. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.165.1.339.
Goumon Y, Casares F, Pryor S, Ferguson L, Brownawell B, Cadet P, et al. Ascaris suum, an intestinal parasite, produces morphine. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md : 1950). 2000 Jul;165(1):339–43.
Goumon, Y., et al. “Ascaris suum, an intestinal parasite, produces morphine.Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), vol. 165, no. 1, July 2000, pp. 339–43. Epmc, doi:10.4049/jimmunol.165.1.339.
Goumon Y, Casares F, Pryor S, Ferguson L, Brownawell B, Cadet P, Rialas CM, Welters ID, Sonetti D, Stefano GB. Ascaris suum, an intestinal parasite, produces morphine. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md : 1950). 2000 Jul;165(1):339–343.

Published In

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

DOI

EISSN

1550-6606

ISSN

0022-1767

Publication Date

July 2000

Volume

165

Issue

1

Start / End Page

339 / 343

Related Subject Headings

  • Swine
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Receptors, Opioid, mu
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Naloxone
  • Morphine
  • Monocytes
  • Intestines
  • Immunology
  • Humans