Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons emitted from various cookstoves used in China.
Emission contributions from cookstoves to indoor, regional, and global air pollution largely depend on stove and fuel types. This paper presents a database on emission factors of speciated non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) for 16 fuel/stove combinations burning 2 types of crop residue, wood, 4 types of coal, kerosene, and 3 types of gaseous fuels. The emission factors are presented both on a fuel mass basis (compound mass per fuel mass) and on a cooking task basis (compound mass per unit energy delivered to the pot). These fuel/stove combinations cover a large spectrum of the cookstoves used in both urban and rural households in China. Up to 54 hydrocarbons were identified, some of which are reactive precursors of photochemical smog. Based on published maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) values for NMHCs, we estimated stove-specific and fuel-specific ozone forming potentials (OFPs). The results indicate that raw coal powder, wood, and crop residues have higher OFP values than the other types of fuels tested. Strikingly, burning the coal briquette and honeycomb coal briquette produced OFP values more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than burning unprocessed (raw) coal, even in the same vented metal stove, for every 1 MJ delivered to the pot.
Tsai, SM; Zhang, JJ; Smith, KR; Ma, Y; Rasmussen, RA; Khalil, MAK
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