Alterations in serum sodium in relation to atrial natriuretic factor and other neuroendocrine variables in experimental pacing-induced heart failure.
The pathophysiologic role of atrial natriuretic factor and other neuroendocrine variables in relation to serum sodium and renal function was evaluated in 15 conscious dogs with severe chronic ventricular pacing-induced heart failure (250 beats/min for 5.1 +/- 0.4 weeks). Six sham-operated dogs observed over an 8 week period served as controls. Development of heart failure was characterized by a progressive increase in plasma norepinephrine, renin activity and aldosterone from control values of 293 +/- 15 pg/ml, 1.4 +/- 0.4 ng/ml per h and 124 +/- 42 pg/ml, respectively, to 1,066 +/- 96 pg/ml, 10.2 +/- 2.4 ng/ml per h and 577 +/- 151 pg/ml (all p less than 0.01), respectively, at severe heart failure. In contrast to other neuroendocrine variables, plasma atrial natriuretic factor increased from a control level of 243 +/- 74 pg/ml to a peak concentration of 724 +/- 149 pg/ml (p less than 0.01) at 2 weeks, then declined and plateaued at twice the level of the control value as severe heart failure developed. At severe heart failure, serum sodium decreased from 147 +/- 0.6 to 141.8 +/- 2.1 mmol/liter (p less than 0.05), whereas urea increased from 6.0 +/- 0.5 to 7.8 +/- 0.6 mmol/liter (p less than 0.05). The change in serum sodium concentration correlated with plasma renin activity and aldosterone (r = -0.77, -0.88, respectively, both p less than 0.01), but not with norepinephrine or atrial natriuretic factor. When sinus rhythm was restored, 14 dogs were observed for 48 to 72 h and 8 dogs were followed up for another 4 weeks after cessation of pacing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Moe, GW; Stopps, TP; Angus, C; Forster, C; De Bold, AJ; Armstrong, PW
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