The genome of the green anole lizard and a comparative analysis with birds and mammals.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

The evolution of the amniotic egg was one of the great evolutionary innovations in the history of life, freeing vertebrates from an obligatory connection to water and thus permitting the conquest of terrestrial environments. Among amniotes, genome sequences are available for mammals and birds, but not for non-avian reptiles. Here we report the genome sequence of the North American green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis. We find that A. carolinensis microchromosomes are highly syntenic with chicken microchromosomes, yet do not exhibit the high GC and low repeat content that are characteristic of avian microchromosomes. Also, A. carolinensis mobile elements are very young and diverse-more so than in any other sequenced amniote genome. The GC content of this lizard genome is also unusual in its homogeneity, unlike the regionally variable GC content found in mammals and birds. We describe and assign sequence to the previously unknown A. carolinensis X chromosome. Comparative gene analysis shows that amniote egg proteins have evolved significantly more rapidly than other proteins. An anole phylogeny resolves basal branches to illuminate the history of their repeated adaptive radiations.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Alföldi, J; Di Palma, F; Grabherr, M; Williams, C; Kong, L; Mauceli, E; Russell, P; Lowe, CB; Glor, RE; Jaffe, JD; Ray, DA; Boissinot, S; Shedlock, AM; Botka, C; Castoe, TA; Colbourne, JK; Fujita, MK; Moreno, RG; ten Hallers, BF; Haussler, D; Heger, A; Heiman, D; Janes, DE; Johnson, J; de Jong, PJ; Koriabine, MY; Lara, M; Novick, PA; Organ, CL; Peach, SE; Poe, S; Pollock, DD; de Queiroz, K; Sanger, T; Searle, S; Smith, JD; Smith, Z; Swofford, R; Turner-Maier, J; Wade, J; Young, S; Zadissa, A; Edwards, SV; Glenn, TC; Schneider, CJ; Losos, JB; Lander, ES; Breen, M; Ponting, CP; Lindblad-Toh, K

Published Date

  • August 31, 2011

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 477 / 7366

Start / End Page

  • 587 - 591

PubMed ID

  • 21881562

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC3184186

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1476-4687

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1038/nature10390


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England