S-Nitrosylation of β-Arrestins Biases Receptor Signaling and Confers Ligand Independence.
Most G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal through both heterotrimeric G proteins and β-arrestins (βarr1 and βarr2). Although synthetic ligands can elicit biased signaling by G protein- vis-à-vis βarr-mediated transduction, endogenous mechanisms for biasing signaling remain elusive. Here we report that S-nitrosylation of a novel site within βarr1/2 provides a general mechanism to bias ligand-induced signaling through GPCRs by selectively inhibiting βarr-mediated transduction. Concomitantly, S-nitrosylation endows cytosolic βarrs with receptor-independent function. Enhanced βarr S-nitrosylation characterizes inflammation and aging as well as human and murine heart failure. In genetically engineered mice lacking βarr2-Cys253 S-nitrosylation, heart failure is exacerbated in association with greatly compromised β-adrenergic chronotropy and inotropy, reflecting βarr-biased transduction and β-adrenergic receptor downregulation. Thus, S-nitrosylation regulates βarr function and, thereby, biases transduction through GPCRs, demonstrating a novel role for nitric oxide in cellular signaling with potentially broad implications for patho/physiological GPCR function, including a previously unrecognized role in heart failure.
Hayashi, H; Hess, DT; Zhang, R; Sugi, K; Gao, H; Tan, BL; Bowles, DE; Milano, CA; Jain, MK; Koch, WJ; Stamler, JS
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