Improved survival in simultaneous lung-liver recipients and candidates in the modern era of lung allocation.
BACKGROUND: Liver-lung transplantation (LLT) is a rare procedure performed for patients with end-stage liver and lung disease. The lung allocation score (LAS), introduced in 2005, guides lung allocation including those receiving LLT. However, the impact of the LAS on outcomes in LLT is currently unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The OPTN/United Network for Organ Sharing STAR file was queried for LLT candidates and recipients from 1988 to 2016. Demographic characteristics before (historic) and after (modern) the LAS were compared. Survival was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. RESULTS: In total, 167 candidates were listed for LLT, and 62 underwent LLT. The historic cohort had a higher FEV1% (48.22% versus 29.82%, P = 0.014), higher creatinine (1.22 versus 0.72, P < 0.001), and a higher percentage with pulmonary hypertension as the indication for transplantation (40% versus 0%, P = 0.003) compared with the modern cohort. LLT candidates in the historic cohort had a lower rate of transplant per 100 candidates (10.87 versus 33.33, P < 0.0001) and worse waitlist survival (1 y: 69.6% versus 80.9%, 3 y: 39.1% versus 66.8%, P = 0.004). Post-transplant survival was significantly lower in the historic cohort (1 y: 50.0% versus 82.7%, 5 y: 40.0% versus 69.0%, 10 y: 20.0% versus 55.5%, P = 0.0099). CONCLUSIONS: Most analyses of LLT have included patients before and after the introduction of the LAS. Our study shows that LLT candidates and recipients before the modern allocation system had distinct baseline characteristics and worse overall survival. Although many factors contributed to recent improved outcomes, these cohorts are significantly different and should be treated as such in future studies.
Freischlag, K; Schroder, PM; Ezekian, B; Cox, ML; Mulvihill, MS; Hartwig, MG; Knechtle, SJ
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