Safety and side-effect profile of intrathecal morphine in a diverse patient population undergoing total knee and hip arthroplasty.
Intrathecal morphine (ITM) can be useful for postoperative analgesia following lower extremity joint arthroplasty, but concerns exist regarding potential dose-related side effects. In this study, we examined the safety and efficacy of ITM in patients undergoing lower extremity joint arthroplasty. We hypothesized that there would be (1) direct relationship between dosing and side effects, and (2) an inverse relationship between ITM dosing and 24-hour postoperative opioid requirement.
Hess, SR; Lahaye, LA; Waligora, AC; Sima, AP; Jiranek, WA; Golladay, GJ
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