M1 and M2 immune activation in Parkinson's Disease: Foe and ally?

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. Autopsy findings, genetics, retrospective studies, and molecular imaging all suggest a role for inflammation in the neurodegenerative process. However, relatively little is understood about the causes and implications of neuroinflammation in PD. Understanding how inflammation arises in PD, in particular the activation state of cells of the innate immune system, may provide an exciting opportunity for novel neuroprotective therapeutics. We analyze the evidence of immune system involvement in PD susceptibility, specifically in the context of M1 and M2 activation states. Tracking and modulating these activation states may provide new insights into both PD etiology and therapeutic strategies.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Moehle, MS; West, AB

Published Date

  • August 27, 2015

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 302 /

Start / End Page

  • 59 - 73

PubMed ID

  • 25463515

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC4442748

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-7544

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.11.018


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States