Characterization of the Hamamatsu VUV4 MPPCs for nEXO
© 2019 Elsevier B.V. In this paper we report on the characterization of the Hamamatsu VUV4 (S/N: S13370-6152) Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) sensitive Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPC)s as part of the development of a solution for the detection of liquid xenon scintillation light for the nEXO experiment. Various MPPC features, such as: dark noise, gain, correlated avalanches, direct crosstalk and Photon Detection Efficiency (PDE) were measured in a dedicated setup at TRIUMF. MPPCs were characterized in the range 163K≤T≤233K. At an over voltage of 3.1±0.2 V and at T=163K we report a number of Correlated Avalanches (CAs) per pulse in the 1μs interval following the trigger pulse of 0.161±0.005. At the same settings the Dark-Noise (DN) rate is 0.137±0.002Hz/mm2. Both the number of CAs and the DN rate are within nEXO specifications. The PDE of the Hamamatsu VUV4 was measured for two different devices at T=233K for a mean wavelength of 189±7nm. At 3.6±0.2 V and 3.5±0.2 V of over voltage we report a PDE of 13.4±2.6% and 11±2%, corresponding to a saturation PDE of 14.8±2.8% and 12.2±2.3%, respectively. Both values are well below the 24% saturation PDE advertised by Hamamatsu. More generally, the second device tested at 3.5±0.2 V of over voltage is below the nEXO PDE requirement. The first one instead yields a PDE that is marginally close to meeting the nEXO specifications. This suggests that with modest improvements the Hamamatsu VUV4 MPPCs could be considered as an alternative to the FBK-LF Silicon Photo-Multipliers for the final design of the nEXO detector.
Gallina, G; Giampa, P; Retière, F; Kroeger, J; Zhang, G; Ward, M; Margetak, P; Li, G; Tsang, T; Doria, L; Al Kharusi, S; Alfaris, M; Anton, G; Arnquist, IJ; Badhrees, I; Barbeau, PS; Beck, D; Belov, V; Bhatta, T; Blatchford, J; Brodsky, JP; Brown, E; Brunner, T; Cao, GF; Cao, L; Cen, WR; Chambers, C; Charlebois, SA; Chiu, M; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Dalmasson, J; Daniels, T; Darroch, L; Daugherty, SJ; De, A; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Dilling, J; Ding, YY; Dolinski, MJ; Dragone, A; Echevers, J; Elbeltagi, M; Fabris, L; Fairbank, D; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fontaine, R; Gautam, P; Giacomini, G; Gornea, R; Gratta, G; Hansen, EV; Heffner, M; Hoppe, EW; Hößl, J; House, A; Hughes, M; Ito, Y; Iverson, A; Jamil, A; Jewell, MJ; Jiang, XS; Karelin, A; Kaufman, LJ; Kodroff, D; Koffas, T; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, KS; Lan, Y; Larson, A; Lenardo, BG; Leonard, DS; Li, S; Li, Z; Licciardi, C; Lin, YH; Lv, P; MacLellan, R; McElroy, T; Medina-Peregrina, M; Michel, T; Mong, B; Moore, DC; Murray, K; Nakarmi, P; Newby, RJ; Ning, Z; Njoya, O; Nolet, F; Nusair, O; Odgers, K; Odian, A; Oriunno, M; Orrell, JL; Ortega, GS
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