Risk factors for primary congenital glaucoma in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.
Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a rare but serious birth defect. Genetic mutations have been implicated in the development of PCG, but little is known about nongenetic risk factors. This study investigates potential risk factors for PCG in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large population-based case-control study of major birth defects in the United States. The analysis includes case infants with PCG (N = 107) and control infants without birth defects (N = 10,084) enrolled in NBDPS from birth years 2000-2011. Pregnancy/infant clinical characteristics, demographics, and parental health history were collected through maternal interview. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed to examine associations with all PCG cases and isolated PCG cases without other major malformations. Associations with all the cases included term low birth weight (<2,500 g; aOR = 2.80, CI 1.59-4.94), non-Hispanic black maternal race/ethnicity (aOR = 2.42, CI 1.42-4.13), maternal history of seizure (aOR = 2.73, CI 1.25-5.97), maternal antihypertensive use (aOR = 3.60, CI 1.52-8.53), and maternal sexually transmitted infection (aOR = 2.75, CI 1.17-6.44). These factors were also associated with isolated PCG, as was maternal use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aOR = 2.70, CI 1.15-6.34). This study is among the first to examine a wide array of potential risk factors for PCG in a population-based sample.
Forestieri, NE; Desrosiers, TA; Freedman, SF; Aylsworth, AS; Voltzke, K; Olshan, AF; Meyer, RE; National Birth Defects Prevention Study,
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