Antagonism of the Neonatal Fc Receptor as an Emerging Treatment for Myasthenia Gravis.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease in which immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies are formed against the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) or other components of the neuromuscular junction. Though effective treatments are currently available, many commonly used therapies have important limitations and alternative therapeutic options are needed for patients. A novel treatment approach currently in clinical trials for myasthenia gravis targets the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). This receptor plays a central role in prolonging the half-life of IgG molecules. The primary function of FcRn is salvage of IgG and albumin from lysosomal degradation through the recycling and transcytosis of IgG within cells. Antagonism of this receptor causes IgG catabolism, resulting in reduced overall IgG and pathogenic autoantibody levels. This treatment approach is particularly intriguing as it does not result in widespread immune suppression, in contrast to many therapies in routine clinical use. Experience with plasma exchange and emerging phase 2 clinical trial data of FcRn antagonists provide proof of concept for IgG lowering in myasthenia gravis. Here we review the IgG lifecycle and the relevance of IgG lowering to myasthenia gravis treatment and summarize the available data on FcRn targeted therapeutics in clinical trials for myasthenia gravis.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Gable, KL; Guptill, JT

Published Date

  • 2019

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 10 /

Start / End Page

  • 3052 -

PubMed ID

  • 31998320

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC6965493

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1664-3224

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.3389/fimmu.2019.03052

Language

  • eng

Conference Location

  • Switzerland