Feasibility of a text-based reduction intervention in helping rural and underserved smokeless tobacco users quit.
INTRODUCTION: Smokeless tobacco (ST) use significantly affects morbidity and mortality and remains disproportionally prevalent in rural and medically underserved communities. Few programs exist for rural smokeless tobacco users. Text-based interventions may increase the reach of cessation interventions; yet, none has tested them in ST users. We evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a text-based Scheduled Gradual Reduction (SGR) intervention in rural and underserved ST users. METHODS: ST users were randomized in 2:1 fashion to the SGR group (N = 65), a text-based reduction program plus text-based support counseling messages or text-based support messages only group (N = 33). We surveyed participants at 30-days post intervention initiation to assess feasibility and acceptability and examined self-report 7-day point prevalence cessation at 30-days and 6-months post intervention initiation in the two arms. RESULTS: We achieved benchmarks for feasibility and acceptability. Among the SGR participants 51% (n = 48) reported that intervention was useful in helping them quit, 83% (n = 48) indicated that they would recommend the intervention to a friend. Over 95% (n = 39) of SGR participants said that they read all alert texts. The SGR participants had a higher quit rate at 30-days compared to support messages alone (SGR = 21.5%, Control = 9.1%, p = 0.1627, Cohen's d equivalent = 0.56, medium effect). However, the quit rate at 6-months was 21% (p = 0.9703) for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: A text-based intervention was feasible and acceptable among underserved ST users. SGR helped promote short-term cessation. The text-based interventions both had long-term efficacy. Given that text-based interventions have the potential to increase reach in underserved ST users, further testing is warranted.
Noonan, D; Silva, S; Fish, LJ; Peter, K; Conley, C; Simmons, LA; Severson, H; Pollak, KI
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