Risuteganib Protects against Hydroquinone-induced Injury in Human RPE Cells.
PURPOSE: Cigarette smoking has been implicated in the pathogenesis of AMD. Integrin dysfunctions have been associated with AMD. Herein, we investigate the effect of risuteganib (RSG), an integrin regulator, on RPE cell injury induced by hydroquinone (HQ), an important oxidant in cigarette smoke. METHODS: Cultured human RPE cells were treated with HQ in the presence or absence of RSG. Cell death, mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured by flow cytometry, XFe24 analyzer, and fluorescence plate reader, respectively. Whole transcriptome analysis and gene expression were analyzed by Illumina RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR, respectively. F-actin aggregation was visualized with phalloidin. Levels of heme oxygenase-1, P38, and heat shock protein 27 proteins were measured by Western blot. RESULTS: HQ induced necrosis and apoptosis, decreased mitochondrial bioenergetics, increased reactive oxygen species levels, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased F-actin aggregates, and induced phosphorylation of P38 and heat shock protein 27. HQ, but not RSG alone, induced substantial transcriptome changes that were regulated by RSG cotreatment. RSG cotreatment significantly protected against HQ-induced necrosis and apoptosis, prevented HQ-reduced mitochondrial bioenergetics, decreased HQ-induced reactive oxygen species production, improved HQ-disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced F-actin aggregates, decreased phosphorylation of P38 and heat shock protein 27, and further upregulated HQ-induced heme oxygenase-1 protein levels. CONCLUSIONS: RSG has no detectable adverse effects on healthy RPE cells, whereas RSG cotreatment protects against HQ-induced injury, mitochondrial dysfunction, and actin reorganization, suggesting a potential role for RSG therapy to treat retinal diseases such as AMD.
Yang, P; Shao, Z; Besley, NA; Neal, SE; Buehne, KL; Park, J; Karageozian, H; Karageozian, V; Ryde, IT; Meyer, JN; Jaffe, GJ
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