Characterization of adipogenic, PPARγ, and TRβ activities in house dust extracts and their associations with organic contaminants.
In this study, we sought to expand our previous research on associations between bioactivities in dust and associated organic contaminants. Dust samples were collected from central NC homes (n = 188), solvent extracted, and split into two fractions, one for analysis using three different bioassays (nuclear receptor activation/inhibition and adipocyte development) and one for mass spectrometry (targeted measurement of 124 organic contaminants, including flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, perfluoroalkyl substances, pesticides, phthalates, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Approximately 80% of dust extracts exhibited significant adipogenic activity at concentrations that are comparable to estimated exposure for children and adults (e.g. ~20 μg/well dust) via either triglyceride accumulation (65%) and/or pre-adipocyte proliferation (50%). Approximately 76% of samples antagonized thyroid receptor beta (TRβ), and 21% activated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Triglyceride accumulation was significantly correlated with TRβ antagonism. Sixty-five contaminants were detected in at least 75% of samples; of these, 26 were correlated with adipogenic activity and ten with TRβ antagonism. Regression models were used to evaluate associations of individual contaminants with adipogenic and TRβ bioactivities, and many individual contaminants were significantly associated. An exploratory g-computation model was used to evaluate the effect of mixtures. Contaminant mixtures were positively associated with triglyceride accumulation, and the magnitude of effect was larger than for any individually measured chemical. For each quartile increase in mixture exposure, triglyceride accumulation increased by 212% (RR = 3.12 and 95% confidence interval: 1.58, 6.17). These results suggest that complex mixtures of chemicals present in house dust may induce adipogenic activity in vitro at environmental concentrations and warrants further research.
Kassotis, CD; Hoffman, K; Phillips, AL; Zhang, S; Cooper, EM; Webster, TF; Stapleton, HM
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