The Impact of Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services SEP-1 Core Measure Implementation on Antibacterial Utilization: A Retrospective Multicenter Longitudinal Cohort Study With Interrupted Time-Series Analysis.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Multicenter Study)

BACKGROUND: The impact of the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: Management Bundle (SEP-1) core measure on overall antibacterial utilization is unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter longitudinal cohort study with interrupted time-series analysis to determine the impact of SEP-1 implementation on antibacterial utilization and patient outcomes. All adult patients admitted to 26 hospitals between 1 October 2014 and 30 September 2015 (SEP-1 preparation period) and between 1 November 2015 and 31 October 2016 (SEP-1 implementation period) were evaluated for inclusion. The primary outcome was total antibacterial utilization, measured as days of therapy (DOT) per 1000 patient-days. RESULTS: The study cohort included 701 055 eligible patient admissions and 4.2 million patient-days. Overall antibacterial utilization increased 2% each month during SEP-1 preparation (relative rate [RR], 1.02 per month [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.00-1.04]; P = .02). Cumulatively, the mean monthly DOT per 1000 patient-days increased 24.4% (95% CI, 18.0%-38.8%) over the entire study period (October 2014-October 2016). The rate of sepsis diagnosis/1000 patients increased 2% each month during SEP-1 preparation (RR, 1.02 per month [95% CI, 1.00-1.04]; P = .04). The rate of all-cause mortality rate per 1000 patients decreased during the study period (RR for SEP-1 preparation, 0.95 [95% CI, .92-.98; P = .001]; RR for SEP-1 implementation, .98 [.97-1.00; P = .01]). Cumulatively, the monthly mean all-cause mortality rate/1000 patients declined 38.5% (95% CI, 25.9%-48.0%) over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Announcement and implementation of the CMS SEP-1 process measure was associated with increased diagnosis of sepsis and antibacterial utilization and decreased mortality rate among hospitalized patients.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Anderson, DJ; Moehring, RW; Parish, A; David, MZ; Hsueh, K; Cressman, L; Tolomeo, P; Habrock-Bach, T; Hill, CL; Ryan, M; O'Brien, C; Lokhnygina, Y; Dodds Ashley, E

Published Date

  • August 31, 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 75 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 503 - 511

PubMed ID

  • 34739080

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1537-6591

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1093/cid/ciab937


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States