Lower SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immunity in people living with HIV-1 recovered from nonhospitalized COVID-19.
People living with HIV-1 (PLWH) exhibit more rapid antibody decline following routine immunization and elevated baseline chronic inflammation than people without HIV-1 (PWOH), indicating potential for diminished humoral immunity during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conflicting reports have emerged on the ability of PLWH to maintain humoral protection against SARS-CoV-2 coinfection during convalescence. It is unknown whether peak COVID-19 severity, along with HIV-1 infection status, associates with the quality and quantity of humoral immunity following recovery. Using a cross-sectional observational cohort from the United States and Peru, adults were enrolled 1-10 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis or symptom resolution. Serum antibodies were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2-specific response rates, binding magnitudes, ACE2 receptor blocking, and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis. Overall, (a) PLWH exhibited a trend toward decreased magnitude of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, despite modestly increased overall response rates when compared with PWOH; (b) PLWH recovered from symptomatic outpatient COVID-19 had comparatively diminished immune responses; and (c) PLWH lacked a corresponding increase in SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with increased COVID-19 severity when asymptomatic versus symptomatic outpatient disease was compared.
Schuster, DJ; Karuna, S; Brackett, C; Wesley, M; Li, SS; Eisel, N; Tenney, D; Hilliard, S; Yates, NL; Heptinstall, JR; Williams, LD; Shen, X; Rolfe, R; Cabello, R; Zhang, L; Sawant, S; Hu, J; Randhawa, AK; Hyrien, O; Hural, JA; Corey, L; Frank, I; Tomaras, GD; Seaton, KE; HVTN 405/HPTN 1901 Study Team,
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