Mapping SARS-CoV-2 antigenic relationships and serological responses.
UNLABELLED: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, multiple variants with differing amounts of escape from pre-existing immunity have emerged, causing concerns about continued protection. Here, we use antigenic cartography to quantify and visualize the antigenic relationships among 16 SARS-CoV-2 variants titrated against serum samples taken post-vaccination and post-infection with seven different variants. We find major antigenic differences caused by substitutions at spike positions 417, 452, 484, and possibly 501. B.1.1.529 (Omicron BA.1) showed the highest escape from all sera tested. Visualization of serological responses as antibody landscapes shows how reactivity clusters in different regions of antigenic space. We find changes in immunodominance of different spike regions depending on the variant an individual was exposed to, with implications for variant risk assessment and vaccine strain selection. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: Antigenic Cartography of SARS-CoV-2 variants reveals amino acid substitutions governing immune escape and immunodominance patterns.
Wilks, SH; Mühlemann, B; Shen, X; Türeli, S; LeGresley, EB; Netzl, A; Caniza, MA; Chacaltana-Huarcaya, JN; Corman, VM; Daniell, X; Datto, MB; Dawood, FS; Denny, TN; Drosten, C; Fouchier, RAM; Garcia, PJ; Halfmann, PJ; Jassem, A; Jeworowski, LM; Jones, TC; Kawaoka, Y; Krammer, F; McDanal, C; Pajon, R; Simon, V; Stockwell, MS; Tang, H; van Bakel, H; Veguilla, V; Webby, R; Montefiori, DC; Smith, DJ
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