Contraindications and safety of transbronchial lung biopsy via flexible bronchoscopy. A survey of pulmonologists and review of the literature.
BACKGROUND: Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) via flexible bronchoscopy is a common procedure performed by pulmonologists. Limited scientific data exist concerning the risk of this procedure in patients with conditions that may adversely affect the rate of procedural complications. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the current practice pattern and attitude of pulmonologists toward the performance of TBLB in the presence of high-risk conditions. METHODS: A survey was constructed and distributed at the American College of Chest Physicians annual meeting, held in Philadelphia, USA, in November of 2001. RESULTS: A total of 227 surveys were distributed with a return of 158 (69.6%). Anticoagulation medications are temporarily held prior to TBLB by the majority of our survey respondents (98.7% for intravenous heparin, 90.5% for warfarin, and 87.3% for low-molecular-weight heparin). Medications with effect on platelet function are held by fewer pulmonologists. There is a wide variation in the pulmonologists' perception of the risk of performing TBLB when certain medical conditions coexist: pulmonary hypertension [absolute contraindication (AC), 28.7%; relative contraindication (RC) 58.6%], superior vena cava syndrome (AC 19.6%, RC 51%), mechanical ventilation (AC 17.8%, RC 58.6%) and lung cavity/abscess (AC 7%, RC 44.9%). A significant percentage of pulmonologists (55%) do not regard an elevated serum creatinine at any level as AC to TBLB. Thirty-eight percent of the survey participants administer desmopressin prior to TBLB in uremic patients to prevent excessive bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Prior to performing bronchoscopic TBLB, the majority of pulmonologists temporarily holds anticoagulation medications. However, there is a lack of agreement in relation to perceived contraindications and safety of TBLB.
Wahidi, MM; Rocha, AT; Hollingsworth, JW; Govert, JA; Feller-Kopman, D; Ernst, A
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