A phase III randomized prospective trial of external beam radiotherapy, mitomycin C, carmustine, and 6-mercaptopurine for the treatment of adults with anaplastic glioma of the brain. CNS Cancer Consortium.
PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate strategies to overcome the resistance of anaplastic gliomas of the brain to external beam radiotherapy (ERT) plus carmustine (BCNU). Patients were > or = 15 years of age, had a histologic diagnosis of malignant glioma, and a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) > or = 60%. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In Randomization 1, patients were assigned to receive either ERT alone (61.2 Gy) or ERT plus mitomycin C (Mito, IV 12.5 mg/m(2)) during the first and fourth week of ERT. After this treatment, patients went on to Randomization 2, where they were assigned to receive either BCNU (i.v. 200 mg/m(2)) given at 6-week intervals or 6-mercaptopurine (6- MP, 750 mg/m(2) IV daily for 3 days every six weeks), with BCNU given on the third day of the 6-MP treatment. Three hundred twenty-seven patients underwent Randomization 1. One hundred sixty-four received ERT alone, and 163 received ERT + Mito [average 52.7 years; 63% male; 69% glioblastoma multiforme (GBM); 66% had a resection; 56% KPS > or = 90%]. Step-wise analysis of survival from Randomization 1 or 2 indicates that survival was significantly diminished by: (a) age > or = 45 years (b) KPS < 90%; (c) GBM/gliosarcoma histology; (d) stereotactic biopsy as opposed to open biopsy or resection. Median survival from Randomization 1 in both arms (ERT + Mito) was 10.8 months. Median survival from Randomization 2 was 9.3 months for BCNU/6MP vs. 11.4 months for the BCNU group (p = 0.35). Carmustine/6-MP showed a possible survival benefit for histologies other than GBM/GS. Two hundred and thirty-three patients underwent Randomization 2. The proportion of patients in the ERT group who terminated study prior to Randomization 2 was significantly less in the ERT group than in the ERT + Mito group (20 vs. 37%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: (a) The addition of Mito to ERT had no impact on survival; (b) patients treated with ERT + Mito were at greater risk of terminating therapy prior to Randomization 2; (c) there was not a significant survival benefit to the addition of 6-MP to BCNU.
Halperin, EC; Herndon, J; Schold, SC; Brown, M; Vick, N; Cairncross, JG; Macdonald, DR; Gaspar, L; Fischer, B; Dropcho, E; Rosenfeld, S; Morowitz, R; Piepmeier, J; Hait, W; Byrne, T; Salter, M; Imperato, J; Khandekar, J; Paleologos, N; Burger, P; Bentel, GC; Friedman, A
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