3-D ultrasound guidance of surgical robotics: a feasibility study.
Laparoscopic ultrasound has seen increased use as a surgical aide in general, gynecological, and urological procedures. The application of real-time, three-dimensional (RT3D) ultrasound to these laparoscopic procedures may increase information available to the surgeon and serve as an additional intraoperative guidance tool. The integration of RT3D with recent advances in robotic surgery also can increase automation and ease of use. In this study, a 1-cm diameter probe for RT3D has been used laparoscopically for in vivo imaging of a canine. The probe, which operates at 5 MHz, was used to image the spleen, liver, and gall bladder as well as to guide surgical instruments. Furthermore, the three-dimensional (3-D) measurement system of the volumetric scanner used with this probe was tested as a guidance mechanism for a robotic linear motion system in order to simulate the feasibility of RT3D/robotic surgery integration. Using images acquired with the 3-D laparoscopic ultrasound device, coordinates were acquired by the scanner and used to direct a robotically controlled needle toward desired in vitro targets as well as targets in a post-mortem canine. The rms error for these measurements was 1.34 mm using optical alignment and 0.76 mm using ultrasound alignment.
Pua, EC; Fronheiser, MP; Noble, JR; Light, ED; Wolf, PD; von Allmen, D; Smith, SW
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