A Phase I trial of preoperative eniluracil plus 5-fluorouracil and radiation for locally advanced or unresectable adenocarcinoma of the rectum and colon.
PURPOSE: Eniluracil, an effective inactivator of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, allows for oral dosing of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which avoids the morbidity of continuous infusion 5-FU. We addressed the safety of oral eniluracil and 5-FU combined with preoperative radiotherapy and determined the recommended Phase II dose and dose-limiting toxicity in patients with locally advanced rectal and colon cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with TNM Stage II or III rectal cancer and residual or recurrent colon cancer received eniluracil (starting at 6.0 mg/m(2) every 12 h) and 5-FU (starting at 0.6 mg/m(2) every 12 h). Eniluracil and 5-FU were given with a 5-week course of preoperative radiotherapy of 4500 cGy, with a possible 540-cGy boost. Surgery was performed approximately 4 weeks after completion of chemoradiotherapy. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were enrolled; 1 patient was withdrawn owing to noncompliance. Chemotherapy was completed in all patients; radiotherapy was completed in 20 patients. The recommended Phase II dose of eniluracil and 5-FU was 8 mg/m(2) every 12 h and 0.8 mg/m(2) every 12 h, respectively. Diarrhea was the dose-limiting toxicity. Eleven of the 17 patients with primary rectal cancer underwent a sphincter-sparing procedure. One patient had a pathologic complete response. CONCLUSION: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy with oral eniluracil and 5-FU is feasible and well tolerated. Additional investigation is warranted.
Czito, BG; Hong, TJ; Cohen, DP; Tyler, DS; Lee, CG; Anscher, MS; Ludwig, KA; Seigler, HF; Mantyh, C; Morse, MA; Lockhart, AC; Petros, WP; Honeycutt, W; Spector, NL; Ertel, PJ; Mangum, SG; Hurwitz, HI
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