Beta-arrestin-mediated localization of smoothened to the primary cilium.
beta-Arrestins have important roles in the regulation of seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs). Smoothened (Smo) is a 7TMR that mediates effects of Hedgehog on developmental processes and whose dysregulation may cause tumorigenesis. beta-Arrestins are required for endocytosis of Smo and signaling to Gli transcription factors. In mammalian cells, Smo-dependent signaling requires translocation to primary cilia. We demonstrated that beta-arrestins mediate the activity-dependent interaction of Smo and the kinesin motor protein Kif3A. This multimeric complex localized to primary cilia and was disrupted in cells transfected with beta-arrestin small interfering RNA. beta-Arrestin 1 or beta-arrestin 2 depletion prevented the localization of Smo to primary cilia and the Smo-dependent activation of Gli. These results suggest roles for beta-arrestins in mediating the intracellular transport of a 7TMR to its obligate subcellular location for signaling.
Kovacs, JJ; Whalen, EJ; Liu, R; Xiao, K; Kim, J; Chen, M; Wang, J; Chen, W; Lefkowitz, RJ
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