Transplant outcomes in mucopolysaccharidoses.
The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) caused by single-gene defects leading to progressive cellular accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and damage to multiple organs, including the central nervous, musculoskeletal, cardiorespiratory, and other systems. Hurler syndrome (MPS IH), the most severe form, is the prototypical model. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), available for MPS I, II, and VI, is beneficial in some patients. However, ERT does not improve neurocognitive function because of its inability to cross the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) allows donor-derived, enzyme-producing cells to migrate to the brain and other organs to provide permanent enzyme therapy and thus help somatic organs, improve neurocognitive function and quality of life, and prolong survival, particularly when performed early in the course of the disease. Bone marrow has been the graft source in the past. However, in the last 5 years many patients have been treated with unrelated donor (URD) umbilical cord blood transplant (UCBT), allowing rapid and increased access to transplantation with favorable outcomes. This review describes published and our institutional clinical experiences, discusses the current status of the field, and provides therapy guidelines for patients with MPS.
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