Integration of a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system into a surgical microscope for intraoperative imaging.
PURPOSE: To demonstrate an operating microscope-mounted spectral domain optical coherence tomography (MMOCT) system for human retinal and model surgery imaging. METHODS: A prototype MMOCT system was developed to interface directly with an ophthalmic surgical microscope, to allow SDOCT imaging during surgical viewing. Nonoperative MMOCT imaging was performed in an Institutional Review Board-approved protocol in four healthy volunteers. The effect of surgical instrument materials on MMOCT imaging was evaluated while performing retinal surface, intraretinal, and subretinal maneuvers in cadaveric porcine eyes. The instruments included forceps, metallic and polyamide subretinal needles, and soft silicone-tipped instruments, with and without diamond dusting. RESULTS: High-resolution images of the human retina were successfully obtained with the MMOCT system. The optical properties of surgical instruments affected the visualization of the instrument and the underlying retina. Metallic instruments (e.g., forceps and needles) showed high reflectivity with total shadowing below the instrument. Polyamide material had a moderate reflectivity with subtotal shadowing. Silicone instrumentation showed moderate reflectivity with minimal shadowing. Summed voxel projection MMOCT images provided clear visualization of the instruments, whereas the B-scans from the volume revealed details of the interactions between the tissues and the instrumentation (e.g., subretinal space cannulation, retinal elevation, or retinal holes). CONCLUSIONS: High-quality retinal imaging is feasible with an MMOCT system. Intraoperative imaging with model eyes provides high-resolution depth information including visualization of the instrument and intraoperative tissue manipulation. This study demonstrates a key component of an interactive platform that could provide enhanced information for the vitreoretinal surgeon.
Ehlers, JP; Tao, YK; Farsiu, S; Maldonado, R; Izatt, JA; Toth, CA
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