Associations of depressive symptoms, trait hostility, and gender with C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 response after emotion recall.
To examine the effects of depressive symptoms and hostility on changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 in response to an acute laboratory stressor. Depressive symptoms moderate the effect of trait hostility on circulating levels of CRP and IL-6.The study included 307 men and 218 women, affording the opportunity to examine moderation by gender. Regression analyses were performed to examine depressive symptoms, hostility ratings, gender, and their interactions as predictors of CRP and IL-6 response to an emotion recall task. Analyses were adjusted for age, race, body mass index, and prerecall task levels of either CRP or IL-6.The product term for Depressive Symptoms x Hostility x Gender was not significantly related to CRP nor IL-6 response. However, Depressive Symptoms x Hostility did interact to predict CRP response (p = .002); those with the combination of high symptoms of depression and hostility had the largest CRP response. The Depressive Symptoms x Gender interaction was also a predictor of both CRP (p = .001) and IL-6 (p = .04) response; for each inflammatory marker, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with higher CRP response in women, as compared with men. Hostility did not moderate depressive symptoms, nor gender for IL-6.Our findings extend prior research by suggesting that, broadly speaking, depression is related to inflammatory markers; however, this relationship seems complex. Depression seems to be related to inflammation more strongly among hostile individuals and more strongly among women than among men.
Brummett, BH; Boyle, SH; Ortel, TL; Becker, RC; Siegler, IC; Williams, RB
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