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Cathy Anne Petti

Adjunct Professor in the Department of Medicine
Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Box 3824 Med Ctr, Durham, NC 27710
Dept of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710

Selected Publications


RADx-UP Testing Core: Access to COVID-19 Diagnostics in Community-Engaged Research with Underserved Populations.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · August 23, 2023 Research on the COVID-19 pandemic revealed a disproportionate burden of COVID-19 infection and death among underserved populations and exposed low rates of SARS-CoV-2 testing in these communities. A landmark National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding init ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The 2023 Duke-International Society for Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases Criteria for Infective Endocarditis: Updating the Modified Duke Criteria.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 22, 2023 The microbiology, epidemiology, diagnostics, and treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) have changed significantly since the Duke Criteria were published in 1994 and modified in 2000. The International Society for Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases (ISCV ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bloodstream infections

Chapter · June 1, 2022 The spectrum of microorganisms causing bacteremia and fungemia in immunocompromised hosts has changed over the last decade, owing in large part to widespread use of chemoprophylaxis, differences in immunosuppressive regimens, and significant increases in t ... Full text Cite

Antistaphylococcal β-Lactams versus Vancomycin for Treatment of Infective Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Susceptible Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci: a Prospective Cohort Study from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · October 2016 The phenotypic expression of methicillin resistance among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is heterogeneous regardless of the presence of the mecA gene. The potential discordance between phenotypic and genotypic results has led to the use of vancomy ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Physician use of parasite tests in the United States from 1997 to 2006 and in a Utah Cryptosporidium outbreak in 2007.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · February 2011 Parasitic infection is uncommon in the United States, but surveys suggest that physicians test when the presence of parasites is unlikely and fail to order appropriate testing when suspicion is high. Numerous studies confirm that immunoassays are more sens ... Full text Link to item Cite

Performance of diagnostic tests to detect respiratory viruses in older adults.

Journal Article Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis · July 2010 The performance of 4 laboratory methods for diagnosis of viral respiratory tract infections (RTI) in older adults was evaluated. Seventy-four nasopharyngeal (NP) swab specimens were obtained from 60 patients with RTI at a long-term care facility over 2 res ... Full text Link to item Cite

Respiratory syncytial virus outbreak in a long-term care facility detected using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction: an argument for real-time detection methods.

Journal Article J Am Geriatr Soc · March 2009 OBJECTIVES: To report an outbreak of respiratory synctyial virus (RSV) in a long-term care facility (LTCF) during ongoing routine respiratory illness surveillance. DESIGN: Rapid antigen testing, viral culture, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) testing, and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phylogenetic analysis of viridans group streptococci causing endocarditis.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · September 2008 Identification of viridans group streptococci (VGS) to the species level is difficult because VGS exchange genetic material. We performed multilocus DNA target sequencing to assess phylogenetic concordance of VGS for a well-defined clinical syndrome. The h ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genotypic diversity of coagulase-negative staphylococci causing endocarditis: a global perspective.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · May 2008 Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important causes of infective endocarditis (IE), but their microbiological profiles are poorly described. We performed DNA target sequencing and susceptibility testing for 91 patients with definite CNS IE who were ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genotypic diversity of anaerobic isolates from bloodstream infections.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · May 2008 Accurate species determination for anaerobes from blood culture bottles has become increasingly important with the reemergence of anaerobic bacteremia and prevalence of multiple-drug-resistant microorganisms. Our knowledge of the taxonomical diversity of a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Leptotrichia endocarditis: report of two cases from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) database and review of previous cases.

Journal Article Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis · February 2008 Leptotrichia species typically colonize the oral cavity and genitourinary tract. We report the first two cases of endocarditis secondary to L. goodfellowii sp. nov. Both cases were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Review of the English literature ... Full text Link to item Cite

Validation of laboratory screening criteria for herpes simplex virus testing of cerebrospinal fluid.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · March 2007 Most patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) central nervous system (CNS) infection have abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) indices. Therefore, we implemented screening criteria based on CSF values and host immune status to guide testing. All CSF samples ... Full text Link to item Cite

Assessment of the utility of viral culture of cerebrospinal fluid.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · December 15, 2006 Nucleic acid amplification testing is the preferred method to detect enteroviruses and Herpesviridae in cerebrospinal fluid, but clinicians still request viral culture. Review of 22,394 viral cultures of cerebrospinal fluid samples found that <0.1% recover ... Full text Link to item Cite

Screening laboratory requests.

Journal Article Emerg Infect Dis · November 2006 Full text Link to item Cite

Laboratory use in Ghana: physician perception and practice.

Journal Article Am J Trop Med Hyg · September 2006 Clinical diagnosis of infectious diseases in Africa has been associated with increased misdiagnosis and mortality, but when laboratory testing is available, it remains underused. We retrospectively compared infectious diagnoses, test results, anti-microbia ... Link to item Cite

Laboratory medicine in Africa: a barrier to effective health care.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · February 1, 2006 Providing health care in sub-Saharan Africa is a complex problem. Recent reports call for more resources to assist in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases that affect this population, but policy makers, clinicians, and the public frequently ... Full text Link to item Cite

Utility of extended blood culture incubation for isolation of Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella organisms: a retrospective multicenter evaluation.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · January 2006 The incidence of and average time to detection for Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella (HACEK) bacteria in blood cultures with standard incubation and the utility of extended incubation of blood culture bottles were review ... Full text Link to item Cite

The role of 16S rRNA gene sequencing in identification of microorganisms misidentified by conventional methods.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · December 2005 Traditional methods for microbial identification require the recognition of differences in morphology, growth, enzymatic activity, and metabolism to define genera and species. Full and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods have emerged as useful tools f ... Full text Link to item Cite

RADx-UP Testing Core: Access to COVID-19 Diagnostics in Community-Engaged Research with Underserved Populations.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · August 23, 2023 Research on the COVID-19 pandemic revealed a disproportionate burden of COVID-19 infection and death among underserved populations and exposed low rates of SARS-CoV-2 testing in these communities. A landmark National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding init ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The 2023 Duke-International Society for Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases Criteria for Infective Endocarditis: Updating the Modified Duke Criteria.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 22, 2023 The microbiology, epidemiology, diagnostics, and treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) have changed significantly since the Duke Criteria were published in 1994 and modified in 2000. The International Society for Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases (ISCV ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bloodstream infections

Chapter · June 1, 2022 The spectrum of microorganisms causing bacteremia and fungemia in immunocompromised hosts has changed over the last decade, owing in large part to widespread use of chemoprophylaxis, differences in immunosuppressive regimens, and significant increases in t ... Full text Cite

Antistaphylococcal β-Lactams versus Vancomycin for Treatment of Infective Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Susceptible Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci: a Prospective Cohort Study from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · October 2016 The phenotypic expression of methicillin resistance among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is heterogeneous regardless of the presence of the mecA gene. The potential discordance between phenotypic and genotypic results has led to the use of vancomy ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Physician use of parasite tests in the United States from 1997 to 2006 and in a Utah Cryptosporidium outbreak in 2007.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · February 2011 Parasitic infection is uncommon in the United States, but surveys suggest that physicians test when the presence of parasites is unlikely and fail to order appropriate testing when suspicion is high. Numerous studies confirm that immunoassays are more sens ... Full text Link to item Cite

Performance of diagnostic tests to detect respiratory viruses in older adults.

Journal Article Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis · July 2010 The performance of 4 laboratory methods for diagnosis of viral respiratory tract infections (RTI) in older adults was evaluated. Seventy-four nasopharyngeal (NP) swab specimens were obtained from 60 patients with RTI at a long-term care facility over 2 res ... Full text Link to item Cite

Respiratory syncytial virus outbreak in a long-term care facility detected using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction: an argument for real-time detection methods.

Journal Article J Am Geriatr Soc · March 2009 OBJECTIVES: To report an outbreak of respiratory synctyial virus (RSV) in a long-term care facility (LTCF) during ongoing routine respiratory illness surveillance. DESIGN: Rapid antigen testing, viral culture, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) testing, and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phylogenetic analysis of viridans group streptococci causing endocarditis.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · September 2008 Identification of viridans group streptococci (VGS) to the species level is difficult because VGS exchange genetic material. We performed multilocus DNA target sequencing to assess phylogenetic concordance of VGS for a well-defined clinical syndrome. The h ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genotypic diversity of coagulase-negative staphylococci causing endocarditis: a global perspective.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · May 2008 Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important causes of infective endocarditis (IE), but their microbiological profiles are poorly described. We performed DNA target sequencing and susceptibility testing for 91 patients with definite CNS IE who were ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genotypic diversity of anaerobic isolates from bloodstream infections.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · May 2008 Accurate species determination for anaerobes from blood culture bottles has become increasingly important with the reemergence of anaerobic bacteremia and prevalence of multiple-drug-resistant microorganisms. Our knowledge of the taxonomical diversity of a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Leptotrichia endocarditis: report of two cases from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) database and review of previous cases.

Journal Article Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis · February 2008 Leptotrichia species typically colonize the oral cavity and genitourinary tract. We report the first two cases of endocarditis secondary to L. goodfellowii sp. nov. Both cases were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Review of the English literature ... Full text Link to item Cite

Validation of laboratory screening criteria for herpes simplex virus testing of cerebrospinal fluid.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · March 2007 Most patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) central nervous system (CNS) infection have abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) indices. Therefore, we implemented screening criteria based on CSF values and host immune status to guide testing. All CSF samples ... Full text Link to item Cite

Assessment of the utility of viral culture of cerebrospinal fluid.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · December 15, 2006 Nucleic acid amplification testing is the preferred method to detect enteroviruses and Herpesviridae in cerebrospinal fluid, but clinicians still request viral culture. Review of 22,394 viral cultures of cerebrospinal fluid samples found that <0.1% recover ... Full text Link to item Cite

Screening laboratory requests.

Journal Article Emerg Infect Dis · November 2006 Full text Link to item Cite

Laboratory use in Ghana: physician perception and practice.

Journal Article Am J Trop Med Hyg · September 2006 Clinical diagnosis of infectious diseases in Africa has been associated with increased misdiagnosis and mortality, but when laboratory testing is available, it remains underused. We retrospectively compared infectious diagnoses, test results, anti-microbia ... Link to item Cite

Laboratory medicine in Africa: a barrier to effective health care.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · February 1, 2006 Providing health care in sub-Saharan Africa is a complex problem. Recent reports call for more resources to assist in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases that affect this population, but policy makers, clinicians, and the public frequently ... Full text Link to item Cite

Utility of extended blood culture incubation for isolation of Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella organisms: a retrospective multicenter evaluation.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · January 2006 The incidence of and average time to detection for Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella (HACEK) bacteria in blood cultures with standard incubation and the utility of extended incubation of blood culture bottles were review ... Full text Link to item Cite

The role of 16S rRNA gene sequencing in identification of microorganisms misidentified by conventional methods.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · December 2005 Traditional methods for microbial identification require the recognition of differences in morphology, growth, enzymatic activity, and metabolism to define genera and species. Full and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods have emerged as useful tools f ... Full text Link to item Cite

Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen test using positive blood culture bottles as an alternative method to diagnose pneumococcal bacteremia.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · May 2005 Recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae from positive blood culture bottles may be difficult due to autolysis of pneumococci. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of the Binax NOW S. pneumoniae antigen test with samples from positive blood culture bottles ... Full text Link to item Cite

Controlled clinical comparison of plastic and glass bottles of BacT/ALERT FA medium for culturing organisms from blood of adult patients.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · April 2005 A new, clear-plastic nonvented aerobic FA bottle, designed to prevent breakage, has been developed for the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We assessed the new plastic FA bottle by comparing its performance with that of the current glass FA bottle for reco ... Full text Link to item Cite

Controlled clinical comparison of plastic versus glass bottles of BacT/ALERT PF medium for culturing blood from children.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · January 2005 The plastic pediatric BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Durham, N.C.) PF (PPF) is a new nonvented aerobic culture medium in a clear plastic bottle designed to prevent breakage. We compared the performance of the new PPF bottle to that of the present glass BacT/ALERT ... Full text Link to item Cite

Controlled clinical comparison of the BacT/ALERT FN and the standard anaerobic SN blood culture medium.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · October 2004 To determine the optimal anaerobic companion bottle to pair with the BacT/ALERT (bioMerieux, Durham, N.C.) nonvented aerobic FA (FA) medium for recovery of pathogenic microorganisms from adult patients with bacteremia and fungemia, we compared the BacT/ALE ... Full text Link to item Cite

Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae septicemia: case report, discussion of literature, and relevance to bioterrorism.

Journal Article Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis · August 2004 Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae (NOVC) is a rare cause of septicemia in the United States. We report a case of NOVC septicemia and discuss the literature pertaining to this organism. NOVC takes on new significance given that it can be confused with toxigenic V. cho ... Full text Link to item Cite

Controlled clinical comparison of BacT/ALERT standard aerobic medium with BACTEC standard aerobic medium for culturing blood.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · June 2003 Standard aerobic media are widely used for culturing blood with the BacT/ALERT (BioMérieux, Inc., Durham, N.C.) (BM) and BACTEC 9240 (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.) (BD) automated continuously monitoring instrument systems. Although similarly composed ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis.

Journal Article Cardiol Clin · May 2003 Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacteremia and endocarditis. Over the past several years, the frequency of S aureus bacteremia (SAB) has increased dramatically. This increasing frequency, coupled with increasing rates of antibiotic resistance, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis.

Journal Article Infect Dis Clin North Am · June 2002 Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacteremia and endocarditis. Over the past several years, the frequency of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) has increased dramatically. This increasing frequency, coupled with increasing rates of antibiotic resistance, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Acute terminal ileitis associated with pneumococcal bacteremia: case report and review of pneumococcal gastrointestinal diseases.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · May 15, 2002 In this report, we describe a patient with acute terminal ileitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, review 3 previously reported cases of isolated enteritis due to S. pneumoniae, and summarize the English-language literature on primary and secondary pneumoc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Postoperative bacteremia secondary to surgical site infection.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · February 1, 2002 We evaluated all surgical site infections (SSI) and postoperative bacteremias secondary to SSI as part of an ongoing active surgical surveillance program at a community hospital. Among 40,191 surgical procedures, we identified 515 patients with SSI and 47 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of Isolator 1.5 and BACTEC NR660 aerobic 6A blood culture systems for detection of fungemia in children.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · August 1996 The Isolator 1.5 microbial system (ISO 1.5) (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.) was compared with the BACTEC NR660 aerobic NR6A bottle (NR6A) (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, Sparks, Md.) for the detection of fungemia in hospitalized ped ... Full text Link to item Cite