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William E. Winner

Professor of Environmental Science at Duke Kunshan University
DKU Faculty

Selected Publications


Environmental Science: the interdisciplinary STEM field

Journal Article Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences · June 1, 2016 The recognition of Environmental Science (ES) academic programs as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is important to the role ES will play in scholarship and in socio-economic development. The National Science Foundation, other feder ... Full text Cite

Advancing sustainability with leapfrog technologies: Lighting a billion lives

Journal Article Sustainability (United States) · October 1, 2015 Full text Cite

Sustainability and metrics: Use of statistics and independent auditing

Journal Article Sustainability (United States) · April 1, 2015 Full text Cite

Embedding environmental academic programs in higher education: Rebuilding environmental sciences at North Carolina State University

Journal Article Sustainability · December 1, 2013 North Carolina State University (NCSU) recently completed a revision of its Environmental Sciences Academic Program and embedded environmental sciences across the university. Environmental sciences now include themes of energy, environment, and sustainabil ... Full text Cite

Balance in the Klamath Basin

Journal Article Solutions for a Sustainable and Desirable Future · 2013 Cite

Response of Plants to Multiple Stresses

Book · December 2, 2012 This book presents a whole-plant perspective on plant integrated responses to multiple stresses, including an analysis of how plants have evolved growth forms and phenological responses to cope with changing stress patterns in natural environments. Key Fea ... Full text Cite

Inventory of leader sternness (ILS)

Chapter · December 1, 2012 The Inventory of Leader Sternness (ILS) is a new leadership construct designed to measure sternness in an adult self-directed leader. Sternness, as a leadership construct, is derived from the writings of Sun Tzu in The Art of War as proposed by Carr, Coe, ... Full text Cite

Environmental academic programs: Advancing sustainability with a new environmental agenda

Journal Article Sustainability · August 1, 2012 Academic institutions represent the best forums for objective discussions about the relationship between humans and environment. Today, the need to explore the foundations of academic programs related to the environment is more important than ever before. ... Full text Cite

Foliar respiration in an old-growth Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest

Journal Article Canadian Journal of Forest Research · January 1, 2006 Old-growth forest ecosystems accrue carbon at small mean rates and may function as carbon sinks in some years and as carbon sources in others. Foliar respiration is a large component of stand carbon balance and could be variable enough to substantially aff ... Full text Cite

Response of sagebrush steppe species to elevated CO2 and soil temperature

Journal Article Western North American Naturalist · January 1, 2005 Elevated atmospheric CO2 may cause long-term changes in the productivity and species composition of the sagebrush steppe. Few studies, however, have evaluated the effects of increased CO2 on growth and physiology of species important to this ecosystem. Sin ... Cite

Carbon dioxide exchange between an old-growth forest and the atmosphere

Journal Article Ecosystems · January 1, 2004 Eddy-covariance and biometeorological methods show significant net annual carbon uptake in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in southwestern Washington, USA. These results contrast with previous assumptions that old-growth forest ecosystems are in carbon eq ... Full text Cite

Canopy carbon gain and water use: Analysis of old-growth conifers in the Pacific Northwest

Journal Article Ecosystems · January 1, 2004 This report summarizes our current knowledge of leaf-level physiological processes that regulate carbon gain and water loss of the dominant tree species in an old-growth forest at the Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility. Analysis includes measurement ... Full text Cite

Three-dimensional structure of an old-growth Pseudotsuga-tsuga canopy and its implications for radiation balance, microclimate, and gas exchange

Journal Article Ecosystems · January 1, 2004 We describe the three-dimensional structure of an old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forest in the central Cascades of southern Washington, USA. We concentrate on the vertical distribution of foliage, crowns, external surface area, wood biomass, and se ... Full text Cite

Plant-centered biosystems in space environments: technological concepts for developing a plant genetic assessment and control system.

Journal Article Gravitational and space biology bulletin : publication of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology · June 2003 Plants will play an essential role in providing life support for any long-term space exploration or habitation. We are evaluating the feasibility of an adaptable system for measuring the response of plants to any unique space condition and optimizing plant ... Cite

Photosynthetic differences between saplings and adult trees: an integration of field results by meta-analysis.

Journal Article Tree physiology · February 2002 Ontogenetic changes in gas exchange parameters provide both insight into mechanisms underlying tree growth patterns, and data necessary to scale environmental impacts on young trees to predict responses of older trees. We present a quantitative review and ... Full text Cite

Photosynthesis and biomass allocation of radish cv. "Cherry Belle" in response to root temperature and ozone.

Journal Article Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) · January 2001 To determine if ozone (O3) and root zone temperature (RZT) affect plant biomass allocation and photosynthesis, radish (Raphanus sativus) plants were grown in controlled environment laboratory chambers in one of four treatments: episodic O3 (average deliver ... Full text Cite

Environmental Science: the interdisciplinary STEM field

Journal Article Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences · June 1, 2016 The recognition of Environmental Science (ES) academic programs as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is important to the role ES will play in scholarship and in socio-economic development. The National Science Foundation, other feder ... Full text Cite

Advancing sustainability with leapfrog technologies: Lighting a billion lives

Journal Article Sustainability (United States) · October 1, 2015 Full text Cite

Sustainability and metrics: Use of statistics and independent auditing

Journal Article Sustainability (United States) · April 1, 2015 Full text Cite

Embedding environmental academic programs in higher education: Rebuilding environmental sciences at North Carolina State University

Journal Article Sustainability · December 1, 2013 North Carolina State University (NCSU) recently completed a revision of its Environmental Sciences Academic Program and embedded environmental sciences across the university. Environmental sciences now include themes of energy, environment, and sustainabil ... Full text Cite

Balance in the Klamath Basin

Journal Article Solutions for a Sustainable and Desirable Future · 2013 Cite

Response of Plants to Multiple Stresses

Book · December 2, 2012 This book presents a whole-plant perspective on plant integrated responses to multiple stresses, including an analysis of how plants have evolved growth forms and phenological responses to cope with changing stress patterns in natural environments. Key Fea ... Full text Cite

Inventory of leader sternness (ILS)

Chapter · December 1, 2012 The Inventory of Leader Sternness (ILS) is a new leadership construct designed to measure sternness in an adult self-directed leader. Sternness, as a leadership construct, is derived from the writings of Sun Tzu in The Art of War as proposed by Carr, Coe, ... Full text Cite

Environmental academic programs: Advancing sustainability with a new environmental agenda

Journal Article Sustainability · August 1, 2012 Academic institutions represent the best forums for objective discussions about the relationship between humans and environment. Today, the need to explore the foundations of academic programs related to the environment is more important than ever before. ... Full text Cite

Foliar respiration in an old-growth Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest

Journal Article Canadian Journal of Forest Research · January 1, 2006 Old-growth forest ecosystems accrue carbon at small mean rates and may function as carbon sinks in some years and as carbon sources in others. Foliar respiration is a large component of stand carbon balance and could be variable enough to substantially aff ... Full text Cite

Response of sagebrush steppe species to elevated CO2 and soil temperature

Journal Article Western North American Naturalist · January 1, 2005 Elevated atmospheric CO2 may cause long-term changes in the productivity and species composition of the sagebrush steppe. Few studies, however, have evaluated the effects of increased CO2 on growth and physiology of species important to this ecosystem. Sin ... Cite

Carbon dioxide exchange between an old-growth forest and the atmosphere

Journal Article Ecosystems · January 1, 2004 Eddy-covariance and biometeorological methods show significant net annual carbon uptake in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in southwestern Washington, USA. These results contrast with previous assumptions that old-growth forest ecosystems are in carbon eq ... Full text Cite

Canopy carbon gain and water use: Analysis of old-growth conifers in the Pacific Northwest

Journal Article Ecosystems · January 1, 2004 This report summarizes our current knowledge of leaf-level physiological processes that regulate carbon gain and water loss of the dominant tree species in an old-growth forest at the Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility. Analysis includes measurement ... Full text Cite

Three-dimensional structure of an old-growth Pseudotsuga-tsuga canopy and its implications for radiation balance, microclimate, and gas exchange

Journal Article Ecosystems · January 1, 2004 We describe the three-dimensional structure of an old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forest in the central Cascades of southern Washington, USA. We concentrate on the vertical distribution of foliage, crowns, external surface area, wood biomass, and se ... Full text Cite

Plant-centered biosystems in space environments: technological concepts for developing a plant genetic assessment and control system.

Journal Article Gravitational and space biology bulletin : publication of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology · June 2003 Plants will play an essential role in providing life support for any long-term space exploration or habitation. We are evaluating the feasibility of an adaptable system for measuring the response of plants to any unique space condition and optimizing plant ... Cite

Photosynthetic differences between saplings and adult trees: an integration of field results by meta-analysis.

Journal Article Tree physiology · February 2002 Ontogenetic changes in gas exchange parameters provide both insight into mechanisms underlying tree growth patterns, and data necessary to scale environmental impacts on young trees to predict responses of older trees. We present a quantitative review and ... Full text Cite

Photosynthesis and biomass allocation of radish cv. "Cherry Belle" in response to root temperature and ozone.

Journal Article Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) · January 2001 To determine if ozone (O3) and root zone temperature (RZT) affect plant biomass allocation and photosynthesis, radish (Raphanus sativus) plants were grown in controlled environment laboratory chambers in one of four treatments: episodic O3 (average deliver ... Full text Cite

A rotated ellipsoidal angle density function improves estimation of foliage inclination distributions in forest canopies

Journal Article Agricultural and Forest Meteorology · January 24, 2000 The 'ellipsoidal distribution', in which angles are assumed to be distributed parallel to the surface of an oblate or prolate ellipsoid, has been widely used to describe the leaf angle distribution (LAD) of plant canopies. This ellipsoidal function is cons ... Full text Cite

Leaf area index of an old-growth Douglas-fir forest estimated from direct structural measurements in the canopy

Journal Article Canadian Journal of Forest Research · January 1, 2000 Leaf area index (LAI) in old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests exceeds that of any other forest ecosystem by some estimates; however, LAI determinations in coniferous forests have generally been indirect, invol ... Full text Cite

Foliage physiology and biochemistry in response to light gradients in conifers with varying shade tolerance.

Journal Article Oecologia · August 1999 To examine the predictability of leaf physiology and biochemistry from light gradients within canopies, we measured photosynthetic light-response curves, leaf mass per area (LMA) and concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll at 15-20 positions ... Full text Cite

Biomass, reproductive output, and physiological responses of rapid-cycling Brassica (Brassica rapa) to ozone and modified root temperature

Journal Article New Phytologist · August 1, 1998 Brassica rapa L. (rapid-cycling Brassica), was grown in environmentally controlled chambers to determine the interactive effects of ozone (O3) and increased root temperature (RT) on biomass, reproductive output, and photosynthesis. Plants were grown with o ... Full text Cite

Construction cost of loblolly and ponderosa pine leaves grown with varying carbon and nitrogen availability

Journal Article Plant, Cell and Environment · January 1, 1996 We grew loblolly and ponderosa pine seedlings in a factorial experiment with two CO2 partial pressures (35 and 70 Pa), and two nitrogen treatments (1.0 and 3.5 mol m-3 NH4+), for one growing season to examine the effects of carbon and nitrogen availability ... Full text Cite

Growth and dry matter partitioning in loblolly and ponderosa pine seedlings in response to carbon and nitrogen availability

Journal Article New Phytologist · January 1, 1995 We grew loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedlings in a factorial experiment with two CO2 partial pressures (35 and 70 Pa) and two nitrogen treatments (1‐0 and 3–5 mM NH4+) for one growing season in a ‘com ... Full text Cite

Compensation as a plant response to ozone and associated stresses: An analysis of ROPIS experiments

Conference Journal of Environmental Quality · January 1, 1994 This paper examines the role that compensation plays in determining plant response to stress. In addition to exploring the compensatory responses to individual stresses, multiple stresses that induce different compensatory strategies are considered. To do ... Full text Cite

Mechanistic analysis of plant responses to air pollution

Journal Article Ecological Applications · January 1, 1994 Full text Cite

Analysis of aspen foliage exposed to multiple stresses: ozone, nitrogen deficiency and drought

Journal Article New Phytologist · January 1, 1994 Two field experiments were conducted to examine the impact of a foliar stress (ozone, O3), alone or in combination with a resource stress, on carbon gain of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). The first experiment involved nitrogen deficiency, and the seco ... Full text Cite

Response of radish to multiple stresses: II. Influence of season and genotype on plant response to ozone and soil moisture deficit

Journal Article New Phytologist · January 1, 1993 Experiments were conducted 10 determine what impact ozone (O3) and/or soil moisture deficit had on tile growth and development of radish plums. Plants of Raphanus sativus L. Cherry Belle and Raphanus sativus × raphanistrum (wild type) grown in modified ope ... Full text Cite

CONSEQUENCES OF EVOLVING RESISTANCE TO AIR-POLLUTANTS

Conference ECOLOGICAL GENETICS AND AIR POLLUTION · January 1, 1991 Link to item Cite

Interactions of SO2 with other environmental stresses in influencing leaf gas exchange.

Journal Article Oecologia · October 1990 Leaves of two field growing co-occuring perennial shrubs (drought-deciduous Diplacus aurantiacus and the evergreen Heteromeles arbutifolia) from the Californian chaparral were exposed to small doses of SO2. During this exposure the leaf environm ... Full text Cite

Response of radish to multiple stresses: I. Physiological and growth responses to changes in ozone and nitrogen.

Journal Article The New phytologist · July 1990 Experiments were conducted to determine the impact of nitrogen and ozone (O3 ) stress on the growth of domestic radish Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle. Plants were grown in field chambers with sub-, optimal and supra-optimal levels of nitro ... Full text Cite

Anthropogenic stress and natural selection: variability in radish biomass accumulation increases with increasing SO2 dose

Journal Article Canadian Journal of Botany · January 1, 1990 Although there is a strong relationship between genetically based variability of a given character and the potential for natural selection to act on that character, most studies of the effects of environmental factors on plants examine the mean re ... Full text Cite

Nutrient effects on responses of willow and alder to ozone

Conference Proceedings - A&WMA Annual Meeting · December 1, 1989 Nutrient status is known to influence plant response to air pollution. One goal of this paper is to synthesize the current understanding in this area by examining studies in the literature in which plants were raised under various nutrient regimes and expo ... Cite

Plant responses to elevational gradients of O(3) exposures in Virginia.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · November 1989 In Shenandoah National Park, O(3) monitoring data were characterized and attempts were made to relate O(3) concentration levels to visible foliar injury observed for five plant species surveyed. Foliar injury for three species increased with elevation. The ... Full text Cite

Modification of stomatal conductance by sulphur dioxide

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Botany · April 1, 1989 The mechanism of SO2-induced changes in stomatal conductance (g) of alder was examined to determine if SO2 affects guard cell function directly or indirectly through the SO2-induced changes in photosynthesis.During experimental fumigations at SO2 concentra ... Full text Cite

Effects of O3 on alder photosynthesis and symbiosis with Frankia.

Journal Article The New phytologist · April 1989 Alnus serrulata (Aiton) Willdenow seedlings with and without root nodules formed by the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia were exposed to clean filtered air or ozone (O3 ) at 0.12 μl l-1 for 27 d (approximately 164 h total exposure ... Full text Cite

Development of lines of radish differing in resistance to O3 and SO2

Journal Article New Phytologist · January 1, 1989 The potential for developing intraspecific lines of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv, Cherry Belle) based on their relative resistance to either O3 or SO2 was examined using growth‐analysis techniques. Plants were exposed to either 0–10μ 1−1 O3 or 0.50 μ 1 − ... Full text Cite

Biologic Markers of Air-pollution Stress and Damage in Forests

Book · 1989 In this book, specific criteria and evaluated approaches to diagnose the effects of air pollution on trees and forests are examined. ... Cite

Compensating effects to growth of carbon partitioning changes in response to SO2-induced photosynthetic reduction in radish.

Journal Article Oecologia · May 1988 Exposure of plants to SO2 reduced their photosynthetic performance due tio reductions in carboxylating capacity. Although the reduced carbon gain resulted in a lower growth rate of SO2-exposed plants over that of controls, their loss ... Full text Cite

Gas exchange and SO2 fumigation studies with irrigated and unirrigated field grown Diplacus aurantiacus and Heteromeles arbutifolia.

Journal Article Oecologia · April 1988 Experiments were performed on an evergreen (Heteromeles arbutifolia) and a drought deciduous shrub (Diplacus aurantiacus) to determine, 1) whether approaches for evaluating SO2 absorption by leaves in laboratory studies could be extended to fiel ... Full text Cite

The relationship between changes in photosynthesis and growth for radish plants fumigated with SO2 and O3

Journal Article New Phytologist · January 1, 1988 The effects of possible ambient concentrations of SO2 and O3 on biomass production and gas exchange of radish (Raphanus sativus L, cv. Cherry Belle) are examined, the relationship between photosynthesis and growth is defined and the mechanisms behind pollu ... Full text Cite

Throughfall chemistry beneath Quercus rubra: atmospheric, foliar, and soil chemistry considerations

Journal Article Canadian Journal of Forest Research · January 1, 1988 Concentrations of inorganic ions were measured in bulk rainfall and bulk throughfall collected beneath northern red oak trees growing in fertile, limestone-derived soil and less fertile sandstone/shale-derived soil. Rainfall passing through the crowns at b ... Full text Cite

Increases in δ13 values of radish and soybean plants caused by ozone

Journal Article New Phytologist · January 1, 1988 This greenhouse study was undertaken to determine whether changes in photosynthesis and conductance caused by air pollution also affected the δ13C value of plant tissue. Experiments with radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherrybelle) and soybean (Glycine max ... Full text Cite

Screening loblolly pine seedling responses to SO2 and O3: analysis of families differing in resistance to fusiform rust disease.

Journal Article Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) · January 1987 Open pollinated families of loblolly pine differing in resistance to fusiform rust disease were screened in laboratory studies for responses to gaseous air pollutants. Twenty families were given acute exposures (2 fumigations for 4 h each) to SO(2) (0.4-1. ... Full text Cite

Effects of 'pristine' and 'industrial' simulated acidic precipitation on greenhouse-grown radishes

Journal Article Environmental and Experimental Botany · January 1, 1987 To test the effects of industrial rain on radish growth, two simulated rain solutions, at pH 4.8 and pH 4.0, were used. The solutions had ionic concentrations similar to average rainfall in Katherine, Australia and the Eastern United States, respectively, ... Full text Cite

A system for controlling the root and shoot environment for plant growth studies

Journal Article Environmental and Experimental Botany · January 1, 1987 A growth chamber-based system was developed for controlling an array of shoot and root environmental factors for plant growth studies. A data acquisition and control system continuously monitors and regulates environmental conditions in each chamber as spe ... Full text Cite

GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS OF HETEROMELES ARBUTIFOLIA DURING FUMIGATION WITH SULPHUR DIOXIDE

Journal Article New Phytologist · January 1, 1987 The objectives of this study were to determine the gas exchange responses of Heteromeles arbutifolia (Ait.) Roem. to a range of sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations applied in various sequences including possible ambient levels. Carbon dioxide and light‐re ... Full text Cite

Annual absorption of gaseous air pollutants by mosses and vascular plants in diverse habitats.

Journal Article Effects of atmospheric pollutants on forests, wetlands and agricultural ecosystems. Proc. Toronto, 1985 · January 1, 1987 Mosses are likely to absorb more SO2 and other gaseous pollutants during the course of a year than are vascular plants. This was apparent with all habitats examined, from the tropics to the arctic tundra. The difference in annual SO2 absorption between the ... Full text Cite

Stress Physiology and the Distribution of Plants

Journal Article BioScience · January 1987 Full text Cite

Absorption of air pollution by plants, and consequences for growth.

Journal Article Trends in ecology & evolution · July 1986 There is now great concern that air pollutants (especially sulfur dioxide, ozone, and oxides of nitrogen) can alter the physiological processes of plants, thereby affecting patterns of growth. Air pollutants cause damage to leaf cuticles and affect stomata ... Full text Cite

A field portable gas‐exchange system for measuring carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange rates of leaves during fumigation with SO2

Journal Article Plant, Cell & Environment · January 1, 1986 Abstract A field portable, steady‐state gas‐exchange system which measures both CO2 and water vapour exchange of single intact leaves during fumigations with SO2 is described. Within the leaf cuvette temperature, light, humidity and both CO2 and SO2 concen ... Full text Cite

Ecology of SO2 resistance : V. effects of volcanic SO2 on native Hawaiian plants.

Journal Article Oecologia · June 1985 Plant species reflected SO2-stress gradients that existed with increased distance from Hawaiian volcano vents which emit SO2. These changes relate, in part at least, to species differences in stomatal responses to SO2. The ... Full text Cite

A Rainfall Simulator for Laboratory Use in Acidic Precipitation Studies

Journal Article Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association · January 1, 1984 A rainfall simulator, developed on the principle of droplet formation from needle tips, is described. The simulator is designed for laboratory experimentation to examine the effects of acidic precipitation on terrestrial plants. Droplet diameter can be var ... Full text Cite

Rainfall chemistry and potential beneficial-detrimental impact to indigenous vegetation.

Journal Article · January 1, 1983 This research project was designed to evaluate the effects of air pollutants on forests in southwestern Virginia. Extensive field studies utilizing tree coring techniques and open-top chamber experiments have shown that air pollutants for RAAP have periodi ... Cite

Relationship between form, function, and distribution of two Arctostaphylos species ( Ericaceae) and their putative hybrids.

Journal Article Acta Oecologica/Oecologia Plantarum · January 1, 1983 Plants of Arctostaphylos viscida occur in xeric, low elevation habitats in the Sierra Nevada. A. patula occurs in more mesic, high elevation sites. Where the distribution of these 2 species overlap, putative hybrids are formed. At a site of co-occurrence o ... Cite

Photosynthesis and respiration of feather mosses fumigated at different hydration levels with SO2.

Journal Article Canadian Journal of Botany · January 1, 1983 Fumigation with SO2 of Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens and Ptilium crista-castrensis results in an immediate decline in their rate of photosynthesis but has no effect upon respiration. The species have similar degrees of SO2 avoidance (uptake) b ... Full text Cite

The effects of the Mount St. Helens eruption cloud on fir (Abies sp.) needle cuticles: analysis with scanning electron microscopy ( Abies amabilis, Abies grandis).

Journal Article American Journal of Botany · January 1, 1983 Abies amabilis and A. grandis needles provided a record of maximum air temperatures during the eruption, and helped reveal the pattern of heat distribution from the eruption cloud. This technique may prove useful for ecological studies in other heat-stress ... Full text Cite

Ecology of SO2 resistance : IV. Predicting metabolic responses of fumigated shrubs and trees.

Journal Article Oecologia · January 1982 10 broadleafed trees and shrubs native to the mediterranean climactic zone in California were surveyed for their photosynthetic and stomatal responses to SO2. These species ranged from drought deciduous to evergreen and had diverse responses to ... Full text Cite

Rates of emission of H2S from plants and patterns of stable sulphur isotope fractionation

Journal Article Nature · December 1, 1981 In all green plants both HSO-3 and SO 42- are reduced during photosynthesis, and many species can emit the product as H2S gas. Plants will emit H2S after fumigation with acute doses of SO2 gas1,2, irrigation with 5% K2SO4 solutions3, or immersion of roots ... Full text Cite

Responses of hawaiian plants to volcanic sulfur dioxide: stomatal behavior and foliar injury.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · November 1980 Hawaiian plants exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide showed interspecific differences in leaf injury that are related to sulfur dioxide-induced changes in stomatal condutance. Species with leaves that did not close stomata developed either chlorosis or necro ... Full text Cite

Ecology of SO2 resistance: III. Metabolic changes of C3 and C4 Atriplex species due to SO2 fumigations.

Journal Article Oecologia · July 1980 The photosynthetic processes of two ecologically-matched, herbaceous Atriplex species differed in their response to SO2 fumigations. Atriplex triangularis, a C3 species, was more sensitive than the C4 species, A. sabulosa. ... Full text Cite

Respiration in Relation to Adenosine Triphosphate Content during Desiccation and Rehydration of a Desiccation-tolerant and a Desiccation-intolerant Moss.

Journal Article Plant physiology · July 1979 O(2) consumption by the desiccation-tolerant moss Tortula ruralis and the desiccation-intolerant Cratoneuron filicinum increased markedly during the latter stages of desiccation. ATP content of the mosses during desiccation was not correlated with O(2) con ... Full text Cite

Ecology of SO2 resistance: II. Photosynthetic changes of shrubs in relation to SO2 absorption and stomatal behavior.

Journal Article Oecologia · January 1979 In an effort to predict SO2 sensitivity of plants from their morphological and physiological features, the effects of SO2 on photosynthesis were partitioned between stomatal and nonstomatal components for a drought deciduous shrub, Di ... Full text Cite

Ecology of SO2 resistance: I. Effects of fumigations on gas exchange of deciduous and evergreen shrubs.

Journal Article Oecologia · January 1979 A unique gas exchange system is described in which photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance can be measured on leaves during SO2 fumigations. SO2 concentrations can be continuously monitored and manipulated between 0 an ... Full text Cite

Terrestrial mosses as bioindicators of SO2 pollution stress : Synecological analysis and the index of atmospheric purity.

Journal Article Oecologia · January 1978 The turf structure of terrestrial mosses was analysed in the understory of white spruce associations along two SO2 stress gradients associated with a single SO2 source. Changes in coverage, turf depth, biomass and percent living moss ... Full text Cite

Stable sulfur isotope analysis of SO2 pollution impact on vegetation.

Journal Article Oecologia · January 1978 The δ34S value of SO2 emitted by natural gas refineries is about +25, which is higher than that for non-industrial sulfur sources in our study areas. Terrestrial mosses absorb SO2 from the atmosphere and have a δ34 Full text Cite

Contrasts between bryophyte and vascular plant synecological responses in an SO2-stressed white spruce association in central Alberta.

Journal Article Oecologia · January 1978 Canopy coverage analysis was used to examine the synecological changes exhibited by vascular plants and terrestrial mosses in a white spruce association exposed to SO2 fumigation. Both these understory components were found to decline in coverag ... Full text Cite