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Gregory R. Lockhead

Professor Emeritus of Psychological and Brain Sciences
Psychology & Neuroscience
Box 90086, Durham, NC 27708-0086
242 Soc-Psych, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Absolute judgments are relative: A reinterpretation of some psychophysical ideas

Journal Article Review of General Psychology · January 1, 2004 A central theoretical assumption in classical psychophysics is that people judge the intensities of stimulus elements; for example, observers directly report the loudness of a tone or the intensity of a shock. A methodological assumption in classical psych ... Full text Cite

Variability is not uniformily bad: The practices of psychologists generate research questions

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · January 1, 2001 The practices of economists increase experimental reproducibility relative to those of selected psychologists but should not be universally adopted. Procedures criticized by Hertwig and Ortmann as producing variable data are valuable, instead, for generati ... Full text Cite

Psychologically rational choice: Selection between alternatives in a multiple-equilibrium game

Journal Article Cognitive Systems Research · January 1, 2000 Choice is modeled by game theory through analyses of the structure of a game situation. However, at least some choices, such as those in games that have more than one rational solution, are difficult to address under standard game theory. We investigated c ... Full text Cite

Range effects of an irrelevant dimension on classification.

Journal Article Perception & psychophysics · November 1999 In univariate classification tasks, subjects sort stimuli on the basis of the only attribute that varies. In orthogonal classification tasks, often called filtering tasks, there additionally are trial-to-trial variations in irrelevant attributes that the s ... Full text Cite

Isomorphisms and subjective colors

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · January 1, 1999 Palmer describes a 'subjective barrier' that limits knowledge of others' experience. We discuss how this barrier extends to all knowledge, becoming less distinct as theoretical constructs are strengthened. We provide evidence for isomorphic experience, amo ... Full text Cite

A framework for structural constraints on feature creation

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · February 1998 We address two major limitations of Schyns et al. First, we clarify their concept of “features” by postulating several levels for processing. The composition of the feature set at each level determines the set at the next higher level, following ... Full text Cite

The micfogenesis of geometrical illusions: contextdependent changes in visiual sensitivity and the muller-lyer effect

Journal Article Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science · December 1, 1997 Purpose, We analyze the influence of visual contexts which resemble the Muller-Lyer configuration on the detectability of a target stimulus. Methods. Six adult subjects were instructed to detect the occurrence of a target while the target and the context w ... Cite

Psycholphysical scaling methods reveal and measure context effects

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · 1995 Cite

Psychophysical scaling methods reveal and measure context effects

Conference Behavioral and Brain Sciences · January 1, 1995 People cannot make independent judgements of stimulus attributes and so 'it is necessary to theorize in terms of stimulus structures' (Lockhead 1992, p. 551) rather than in terms of stimulus features. The new commentaries here further this statement and al ... Full text Cite

IT IS TIME FOR A CHANGE - AUTHORS RESPONSE

Journal Article BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES · 1994 Full text Cite

Psychological measures of objects and their features: It is time for a change

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · 1994 Cite

A parallel view of the history of psychophysics

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · March 1993 Full text Cite

Psychophysical scaling: Judgments of attributes or objects?

Journal Article The Behavioral and brain sciences · September 1992 Psychophysical scaling models of the form R = f(I), with R the response and I some intensity of an attribute, all assume that people judge the amounts of an attribute. With simple biases excepted, most also assume that judgments are independent of space, t ... Full text Cite

Constancy in a changing world

Journal Article Behavioral & Brain Sciences · 1992 Cite

Toying with the moon illusion.

Journal Article Applied optics · August 1991 We propose that the correct interpretation of the moon illusion is that the zenith moon appears small, not that the horizon moon appears large. This illusion is caused by the visual gap between the observer and the overhead moon. Because of the gap, the ob ... Full text Cite

Assessment of the McCollough effect by a shift in psychometric function

Journal Article Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society · January 1, 1991 Following adaptation to chromatic grids, we assessed the orientation-contingent color aftereffect with a new procedure—a shift in the psychometric function from the preadaptation level. With this procedure, the conditions that did and did not induce the af ... Full text Cite

McCullough aftereffects in strabismus and amblyopia

Journal Article Vision Research · 1989 Cite

Absolute judgments are relative: A reinterpretation of some psychophysical ideas

Journal Article Review of General Psychology · January 1, 2004 A central theoretical assumption in classical psychophysics is that people judge the intensities of stimulus elements; for example, observers directly report the loudness of a tone or the intensity of a shock. A methodological assumption in classical psych ... Full text Cite

Variability is not uniformily bad: The practices of psychologists generate research questions

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · January 1, 2001 The practices of economists increase experimental reproducibility relative to those of selected psychologists but should not be universally adopted. Procedures criticized by Hertwig and Ortmann as producing variable data are valuable, instead, for generati ... Full text Cite

Psychologically rational choice: Selection between alternatives in a multiple-equilibrium game

Journal Article Cognitive Systems Research · January 1, 2000 Choice is modeled by game theory through analyses of the structure of a game situation. However, at least some choices, such as those in games that have more than one rational solution, are difficult to address under standard game theory. We investigated c ... Full text Cite

Range effects of an irrelevant dimension on classification.

Journal Article Perception & psychophysics · November 1999 In univariate classification tasks, subjects sort stimuli on the basis of the only attribute that varies. In orthogonal classification tasks, often called filtering tasks, there additionally are trial-to-trial variations in irrelevant attributes that the s ... Full text Cite

Isomorphisms and subjective colors

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · January 1, 1999 Palmer describes a 'subjective barrier' that limits knowledge of others' experience. We discuss how this barrier extends to all knowledge, becoming less distinct as theoretical constructs are strengthened. We provide evidence for isomorphic experience, amo ... Full text Cite

A framework for structural constraints on feature creation

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · February 1998 We address two major limitations of Schyns et al. First, we clarify their concept of “features” by postulating several levels for processing. The composition of the feature set at each level determines the set at the next higher level, following ... Full text Cite

The micfogenesis of geometrical illusions: contextdependent changes in visiual sensitivity and the muller-lyer effect

Journal Article Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science · December 1, 1997 Purpose, We analyze the influence of visual contexts which resemble the Muller-Lyer configuration on the detectability of a target stimulus. Methods. Six adult subjects were instructed to detect the occurrence of a target while the target and the context w ... Cite

Psycholphysical scaling methods reveal and measure context effects

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · 1995 Cite

Psychophysical scaling methods reveal and measure context effects

Conference Behavioral and Brain Sciences · January 1, 1995 People cannot make independent judgements of stimulus attributes and so 'it is necessary to theorize in terms of stimulus structures' (Lockhead 1992, p. 551) rather than in terms of stimulus features. The new commentaries here further this statement and al ... Full text Cite

IT IS TIME FOR A CHANGE - AUTHORS RESPONSE

Journal Article BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES · 1994 Full text Cite

Psychological measures of objects and their features: It is time for a change

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · 1994 Cite

A parallel view of the history of psychophysics

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · March 1993 Full text Cite

Psychophysical scaling: Judgments of attributes or objects?

Journal Article The Behavioral and brain sciences · September 1992 Psychophysical scaling models of the form R = f(I), with R the response and I some intensity of an attribute, all assume that people judge the amounts of an attribute. With simple biases excepted, most also assume that judgments are independent of space, t ... Full text Cite

Constancy in a changing world

Journal Article Behavioral & Brain Sciences · 1992 Cite

Toying with the moon illusion.

Journal Article Applied optics · August 1991 We propose that the correct interpretation of the moon illusion is that the zenith moon appears small, not that the horizon moon appears large. This illusion is caused by the visual gap between the observer and the overhead moon. Because of the gap, the ob ... Full text Cite

Assessment of the McCollough effect by a shift in psychometric function

Journal Article Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society · January 1, 1991 Following adaptation to chromatic grids, we assessed the orientation-contingent color aftereffect with a new procedure—a shift in the psychometric function from the preadaptation level. With this procedure, the conditions that did and did not induce the af ... Full text Cite

McCullough aftereffects in strabismus and amblyopia

Journal Article Vision Research · 1989 Cite

Assimilation and contrast: Two processes or one?

Journal Article New Ideas in Psychology · 1988 Cite

Modeling temporal and spatial differences

Journal Article The Behavioral and Brain Sciences · 1988 Cite

Incidence and characteristics of McCollough aftereffects following video display terminal use.

Journal Article J Occup Med · September 1987 After using video display terminals (VDT), some persons notice that achromatic patterns appear faintly colored hours after terminal use. We investigated the incidence of this effect, the McCollough effect (ME), among 125 VDT users. Subjects completed a que ... Link to item Cite

Momentary and global maximizing.

Journal Article Behavioural processes · February 1987 Four adult females responded at a computer console, on three constant probability concurrent variable-interval reinforcement schedules. The subjects were instructed to try to obtain as many reinforcers as possible, but were not given any instructions on ho ... Full text Cite

Brightness of luminance distributions with gradual changes.

Journal Article Vision research · January 1987 The perception of gradually changing luminance distributions was investigated. Luminance changed across the radius of a disk by a linear, quadratic, or cubic function with varying magnitudes. Subjects selected matching luminances for the inner and outer ed ... Full text Cite

Category thresholds

Journal Article Fechner Day, Northampton, MA: International Society for Psychophysics · 1987 Cite

Range and sequence effects in judgment.

Journal Article Perception & psychophysics · July 1986 Full text Cite

Range effects in successive discrimination procedures

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes · 1986 Cite

Moon illusion: a new perspective.

Journal Article Applied optics · June 1985 Full text Cite

Implications of perception thresholds for soiling

Journal Article Proceedings of the Air Pollution Control Association, 8.5 · 1985 Cite

A memory model of sequential effects in scaling tasks.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance · June 1983 Subjects judge successive stimuli to be overly similar in psychophysical scaling tasks. This is called assimilation. They also tend to judge each stimulus as overly different from more previous events. This is called contrast. To examine a two-stage linear ... Full text Cite

A word processor induced visual aftereffect

Journal Article Human Factors Society Bulletin · 1983 Cite

Biologic Analogues of Image Inhancement and the Dynamics of the Visual System

Journal Article Technical Report to the Southeastern Center for Electrical Engineering Education · 1983 Cite

Practically perfect performance.

Journal Article The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · March 1982 Full text Cite

Response scales and sequential effects in judgment.

Journal Article Perception & psychophysics · December 1981 Full text Cite

Practically perfect pitch

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · January 1, 1981 People who can identify piano notes with essentially no errors (perfect pitch) are much less capable in identifying musical notes produced by sine waves. Thus, frequency is not the only information these people use to identify musical notes; piano notes ar ... Full text Cite

Context affects measures of sensory intensity

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · January 1, 1981 Full text Cite

Making letters distinctive

Journal Article Journal of Educational Psychology · August 1, 1980 Results of a study with 77 kindergartners, 24 1st graders, 21 2nd graders, and 6 college students show that small graphic changes made in normal letters of the alphabet changed the similarity relations among those letters. All Ss classified letters of this ... Full text Cite

Saltation through the blind spot.

Journal Article Perception & psychophysics · June 1980 Full text Cite

The free recall of category examples

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory · May 1, 1980 24 undergraduates recalled the names of as many animals, birds, foods, or cold foods as they could in 15- or 30-min sessions. In each task, the rate of item production decreased with increasing time, and semantically related items were produced in spurts o ... Full text Cite

On sequential effects in absolute judgments

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance · 1980 Cite

Holistic versus analytic process models: a reply.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance · November 1979 Two classes of stimulus process models are considered in this reply to Dykes and Cooper. It is shown that analytic models which assume that stimuli are initially processed in terms of constituent dimensions do not account for large amounts of published dat ... Full text Cite

Context and goodness in a focusing task

Journal Article Perception & Psychophysics · July 1, 1979 In a focusing task, people respond positively to one stimulus and negatively to all other stimuli that occur. The task has been called focusing in recognition of the possibility that only the target stimulus is relevant to performance, and that what people ... Full text Cite

Emmert’s imaginal law

Journal Article Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society · January 1, 1979 The apparent size of a visual afterimage increases in proportion with the distance at which that image is viewed; this is Emmert’s law. Contrary to Emmert’s law for afterimages, this paper reports that the apparent size of a mentally imaged object decrease ... Full text Cite

Classifying related stimuli.

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory · September 1978 Full text Cite

Similarity as distance: A structural principle for semantic memory.

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory · November 1977 Full text Cite

Multidimensional scaling of subjective colors by color-blind observers

Journal Article Perception & Psychophysics · November 1, 1977 Temporal coding theories of color vision suggest explanations of flicker-induced subjective colors such as those that appear on Benham's disk. If color blindness were due simply to photopigment anomalies, then subjective colors might be elicited by central ... Full text Cite

Classifying intergral stimuli.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance · August 1977 Two reported experiments support holistic, as opposed to analytic, processing models for integral stimuli. Speeded classification data from different information-processing tasks (univariate and correlated) were predicted by distance between stimuli in sim ... Full text Cite

Parameters of stimulation and perception in an artificial sensory feedback system.

Journal Article Journal of bioengineering · August 1977 The relationships between stimulus parameters and perceptions in a prosthetic feedback system were measured using psychophysical methods. Electrical stimulation of the median nerve produced a monotonic relation between frequency of stimulation and the perc ... Cite

Identification of integral stimuli

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Psychology: General · March 1, 1977 Conducted 2 experiments to confirm a holistic or "blob" processing model of stimulus identification in which discriminability is related to psychological distances between stimuli. In Exp I, 4 paid observers identified rectangles from linearly correlated a ... Full text Cite

Concerning processes involved in judging redundant two-dimensional stimuli

Journal Article Proceedings of the American Psychological Association · 1974 Cite

Criterial range as a frame of reference for stimulus judgment.

Journal Article Psychological review · May 1973 Full text Cite

Processing dimensional stimuli: a note.

Journal Article Psychological review · September 1972 Full text Cite

Critical response as a frame of a reference for judgment

Journal Article Program of the Psychonomic Society · 1972 Cite

Response system processes in absolute judgment

Journal Article Perception & Psychophysics · 1971 Cite

Difference information and brightness perception

Journal Article Perception & Psychophysics · 1971 Cite

Identification and the form of multidimensional discrimination space.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology · July 1970 Full text Cite

Sequential effects and memory in category judgments

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Psychology · 1970 Cite

Memorial processes and category judgments

Journal Article Psychonomic Bulletin · 1969 Cite

Criterial dispersion's and the stimulus range

Journal Article Proceedings 78th Annual APA Convention · 1969 Cite

Sequential effects in absolute judgments of loudness

Journal Article Perception & Psychophysics · 1968 Cite

Multidimensional discriminability and salience of attributes

Journal Article Proceedings of the Eastern Psychological Association · 1968 Cite

Form of redundancy and identification of three-dimensional stimuli

Journal Article Psychonomic Bulletin · October 1967 Cite

Possible monocular predictors of binocular rivalry of contours

Journal Article Perception & Psychophysics · February 1, 1967 An analysis of contour disappearances in conflicting patterned stereograms is made from the knowledge of two monocular events: contrast effects associated with contours and phasic local adaptation. It is argued that the percepts resulting from these monocu ... Full text Cite

Effects of dimensional redundancy on visual discrimination.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology · July 1966 Full text Cite

Visual discrimination and methods of presenting redundant stimuli

Journal Article Proceedings of the American Psychological Association · 1966 Cite

Repetition redundancy and visual form discrimination

Journal Article Psychonomic Science · 1965 Cite

Methods of presenting paired associates

Journal Article Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior · 1962 Cite

Productivity and errors in two keying tasks: A field study

Journal Article Journal of Applied Psychology · 1962 Cite

A re-evaluation of evidence of one-trial associative learning.

Journal Article The American journal of psychology · December 1961 Full text Cite