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Herbert P. Kitschelt

George V. Allen Distinguished Professor of International Relations
Political Science
Box 90204, Durham, NC 27708-0204
140 Science Drive, 289 Gross H, Box 90204, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Polarity Reversal: The Socioeconomic Reconfiguration of Partisan Support in Knowledge Societies

Journal Article Politics and Society · December 1, 2023 This article proposes a framework to analyze realignment processes in countries that transition from industrial to knowledge societies. It characterizes the electorate in terms of two traits that are main predictors for attitudes in a two-dimensional polic ... Full text Cite

Analytical perspectives on varieties of clientelism

Journal Article Democratization · January 2, 2020 This article explains the varieties of clientelistic vote exchange in contemporary electoral democracies. It distinguishes two commonly recognized modes of exchange according to their capacity to overcome the problem of opportunism–relational clientelism a ... Full text Cite

Secular partisan realignment in the united states: The socioeconomic reconfiguration of white partisan support since the new deal era

Journal Article Politics and Society · September 1, 2019 White American voters have realigned among the two dominant parties by income and education levels. This article argues that the interaction of education and income provides a more insightful—and stark—display of this change than treating them individually ... Full text Cite

Determinants of dimension dominance

Chapter · January 1, 2018 In some countries, electoral competition predominantly revolves around redistributional questions (“first-dimension politics”), while in other countries, issues related to cultural matters (guns, gays, and god) or immigration play a more dominant role (“se ... Full text Cite

Clientelism in Latin America. Effort and Effectiveness

Chapter · 2015 The paper explains where and why Latin American voters build clientelistic linkages to parties, and why sometimes, but not always, parties make efforts to provide clientelistic targeted goods to voters that remain unreciprocated by voters’ partisan choices ... Cite

Introduction: The politics of advanced capitalism

Chapter · January 1, 2015 In the concluding chapter of the 1999 volume Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism, the then-editors affirmed that the most challenging part of the characterization of contemporary capitalism is to determine “how the cross-sectional patterns of ... Full text Cite

Conclusion: Advanced capitalism in crisis

Chapter · January 1, 2015 We began this project spurred by our skepticism of diagnostics proclaiming the convergence in terms of outcomes and policy among advanced industrial societies, a view only invigorated by the financial crisis that began in the fall of 2007. In this interpre ... Full text Cite

Party alignments: Change and continuity

Chapter · January 1, 2015 Changes in the occupational structure and political economy of advanced capitalism, explained in Daniel Oesch’s chapter in this volume, and related shifts in the formation of political mass preferences, examined by Silja Häusermann and Hanspeter Kriesi in ... Full text Cite

Occupations as a Site of Political Preference Formation

Journal Article Comparative Political Studies · October 11, 2014 Political preferences are multi-dimensional, covering topics like redistribution, immigration, and abortion. But what accounts for people’s political preferences? We argue that an individual’s work experiences on the job play an important part in shaping a ... Full text Cite

Economic Development, Democratic Experience, and Political Parties' Linkage Strategies

Journal Article Comparative Political Studies · November 1, 2013 This article examines the relationship among a country's democratic experience, its level of economic development, and the prevalence of clientelistic and programmatic modes of democratic accountability. In contrast to the commonly accepted wisdom that cli ... Full text Cite

The Dynamics of Party Systems in Postindustrial Democracies.

Chapter · 2013 Examines rival theories of party system change in postindustrial capitalism and provides evidence that realignment theories are most consistent with the data. ... Cite

A Europe in Crisis. The Crisis of the Euro and the European Union

Other Duke International Relations Association Newsletter · September 2012 Cite

Polarity Reversal: The Socioeconomic Reconfiguration of Partisan Support in Knowledge Societies

Journal Article Politics and Society · December 1, 2023 This article proposes a framework to analyze realignment processes in countries that transition from industrial to knowledge societies. It characterizes the electorate in terms of two traits that are main predictors for attitudes in a two-dimensional polic ... Full text Cite

Analytical perspectives on varieties of clientelism

Journal Article Democratization · January 2, 2020 This article explains the varieties of clientelistic vote exchange in contemporary electoral democracies. It distinguishes two commonly recognized modes of exchange according to their capacity to overcome the problem of opportunism–relational clientelism a ... Full text Cite

Secular partisan realignment in the united states: The socioeconomic reconfiguration of white partisan support since the new deal era

Journal Article Politics and Society · September 1, 2019 White American voters have realigned among the two dominant parties by income and education levels. This article argues that the interaction of education and income provides a more insightful—and stark—display of this change than treating them individually ... Full text Cite

Determinants of dimension dominance

Chapter · January 1, 2018 In some countries, electoral competition predominantly revolves around redistributional questions (“first-dimension politics”), while in other countries, issues related to cultural matters (guns, gays, and god) or immigration play a more dominant role (“se ... Full text Cite

Clientelism in Latin America. Effort and Effectiveness

Chapter · 2015 The paper explains where and why Latin American voters build clientelistic linkages to parties, and why sometimes, but not always, parties make efforts to provide clientelistic targeted goods to voters that remain unreciprocated by voters’ partisan choices ... Cite

Introduction: The politics of advanced capitalism

Chapter · January 1, 2015 In the concluding chapter of the 1999 volume Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism, the then-editors affirmed that the most challenging part of the characterization of contemporary capitalism is to determine “how the cross-sectional patterns of ... Full text Cite

Conclusion: Advanced capitalism in crisis

Chapter · January 1, 2015 We began this project spurred by our skepticism of diagnostics proclaiming the convergence in terms of outcomes and policy among advanced industrial societies, a view only invigorated by the financial crisis that began in the fall of 2007. In this interpre ... Full text Cite

Party alignments: Change and continuity

Chapter · January 1, 2015 Changes in the occupational structure and political economy of advanced capitalism, explained in Daniel Oesch’s chapter in this volume, and related shifts in the formation of political mass preferences, examined by Silja Häusermann and Hanspeter Kriesi in ... Full text Cite

Occupations as a Site of Political Preference Formation

Journal Article Comparative Political Studies · October 11, 2014 Political preferences are multi-dimensional, covering topics like redistribution, immigration, and abortion. But what accounts for people’s political preferences? We argue that an individual’s work experiences on the job play an important part in shaping a ... Full text Cite

Economic Development, Democratic Experience, and Political Parties' Linkage Strategies

Journal Article Comparative Political Studies · November 1, 2013 This article examines the relationship among a country's democratic experience, its level of economic development, and the prevalence of clientelistic and programmatic modes of democratic accountability. In contrast to the commonly accepted wisdom that cli ... Full text Cite

The Dynamics of Party Systems in Postindustrial Democracies.

Chapter · 2013 Examines rival theories of party system change in postindustrial capitalism and provides evidence that realignment theories are most consistent with the data. ... Cite

A Europe in Crisis. The Crisis of the Euro and the European Union

Other Duke International Relations Association Newsletter · September 2012 Cite

Parties and Party Systems

Chapter · 2012 The paper provides a textbook style overview of theories of party competition and citizen-politician linkage and principal-agent relations. ... Cite

Social class and the radical right: Conceptualizing political preference formation and partisan choice

Chapter · January 1, 2012 Introduction A sensible discussion of the strategic opportunities for growth as well as containment of the radical right in post-industrial democracies and those surrounding them (i.e., Central and Eastern Europe) requires an adequate conceptualization of ... Full text Cite

The comparative analysis of electoral and partisan politics: A comment on a special issue of West European politics

Journal Article West European Politics · May 1, 2010 The research papers assembled in this West European Politics issue are placed in an encompassing framework specifying components of the electoral and party studies research area. This makes it possible to identify complementarities, conflicts, and empty sp ... Full text Cite

Latin American party systems

Book · January 1, 2010 Political parties provide a crucial link between voters and politicians. This link takes a variety of forms in democratic regimes, from the organization of political machines built around clientelistic networks to the establishment of sophisticated program ... Full text Cite

The radical right in post-communist Europe. Comparative perspectives on legacies and party competition.

Journal Article Communist and Post-Communist Studies. · October 2009 We investigate the effect of welfare state retrenchment on vote support for radical right parties in the 2000s. In countries with a legacy of national accommodative communism, early differentiation of major parties on socio-cultural issues and strategies o ... Cite

Post-Industrial Democracies: Political Economy and Democratic Partisan Competition

Chapter · April 2009 The paper reconstructs the development of the field of comparative political economy since the early 1980s as a steady complexification of theoretical models to increase the empirical explanatory reach of analysis. ... Cite

Measuring democratic accountability: An initial report on an emerging data set

Journal Article Revista de Ciencia Politica · January 1, 2009 In this paper, we report on a new dataset based on expert surveys carried out in nearly 90 countries around the world. This dataset helps to overcome the limited existence of cross-national data on democratic linkage mechanisms between citizens and politic ... Full text Cite

Fortieth anniversary issue

Journal Article Comparative Political Studies · April 1, 2008 Full text Cite

Political Participation

Chapter · 2008 The paper specifies modes of political participation and then analyzes determinants of different forms of participation with both macro-level as well as micro-level variables. ... Cite

Growth and Persistence of the Radical Right in Postindustrial Democracies. Advances and Challenges in Comparative

Journal Article West European Politics · October 2007 The paper discusses the conceptualization of radical right wing parties. It then defends supply side explanations that focus on the convergence of conventional left and right parties as a condition that enables political entrepreneurs to create new elector ... Cite

Patrons, clients, and policies: Patterns of democratic accountability and political competition

Book · January 1, 2007 Most models of party competition assume that citizens vote for a platform rather than narrowly targeted material benefits. However, there are many countries where politicians win elections by giving money, jobs, and services in direct exchange for votes. T ... Full text Cite

Party Systems

Chapter · 2007 This paper reviews the voluminous literature on the concept of party system and discusses theories of party system dynamics. While a handbook article, it makes an original contribution in proposing a new theoretical approach to the concept of "competitiven ... Cite

Movement Parties

Chapter · 2006 Cite

„Diversificación y reconfiguración de los sistemas de partidos de las democracias postindustriales

Journal Article Revista Española de Ciencia Política · April 2004 Revista Española de Ciencia Política. Núm. 10, Abril 2004, pp. 9-51 Diversificación y reconfiguración de los sistemas de partidos de las democracias postindustriales * ** Herbert Kitschelt HERBERT KITSCHELT DIVERSIFICACIÓN Y RECONFIGURACIÓN DE LOS SISTE ... Cite

From stability to stagnation: Germany at the beginning of the twenty-first century

Book · February 5, 2004 Basic institutions and political power configurations that contributed to Germany's post-war social and economic success turned from assets into liabilities in the 1990s and beyond. This introduction highlights the emergence and interaction of the critical ... Full text Cite

Political-economic context and partisan strategies in the German federal elections, 1990-2002

Chapter · February 5, 2004 With the intensifying crisis of the German political-economic model, federal elections signal the beginning of a polarising realignment that rallies beneficiaries of the status quo, particularly white collar employees in non-profit sectors, individuals wit ... Full text Cite

Varieties of capitalism and political divides over European integration

Chapter · 2004 (no abstract in the book) The paper shows that European mass publics align their preferences over the desirability of European integration according to domestic political-economic institutions and ideological divides in the party systems. ... Cite

Origins of International Terrorism in the Middle East

Journal Article International Politics and Society · 2004 Islamist terrorism is a response to predatory regimes which no longer have the means to co-opt their opponents and resort to repression rather than negotiated concessions. This type of regime is widespread in the Middle East, not least due to the reg ... Cite

From stability to stagnation: Germany at the beginning of the twenty-first century

Journal Article West European Politics · October 1, 2003 Basic institutions and political power configurations that contributed to Germany's post-war social and economic success turned from assets into liabilities in the 1990s and beyond. This introduction highlights the emergence and interaction of the critical ... Full text Cite

Linkages between Citizens and Politicians in Democratic Politics

Journal Article Comparative Political Studies · August 2000 Cite

The Formation of Party Cleavages in Post-Communist Democracies: Theoretical Propositions

Journal Article Party Politics · 2000 reprinted in: Stephen White and Daniel Nelson, eds., The Politcs of the Post-Communist World, Volume I. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2000 ... Cite

Citizens, politicians, and party cartellization: Political representation and state failure in post-industrial democracies

Journal Article European Journal of Political Research · January 1, 2000 This paper critiques what can be interpreted as an application of the literature on state failure in current political economy and political science to the changing role of political parties in advanced post-industrial democracies. Katz and Mair's theory o ... Full text Cite

Linkages between citizens and politicians in democratic polities

Journal Article Comparative Political Studies · January 1, 2000 Research on democratic party competition in the formal spatial tradition of Downs and the comparative-historical tradition of Lipset and Rokkan assumes that linkages of accountability and responsiveness between voters and political elites work through poli ... Full text Cite

Post-Communist Party Systems

Book · August 13, 1999 This study examines democratic party competition in four post-communist polities in the mid-1990s, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. ... Cite

Class Structure and Social Democratic Party Strategy

Journal Article British Journal of Political Science · 1999 Cite

Zielkonflikte beim Neuaufbau des Universitwesens in Ostdeutschland: Eine Vergleichende Betrachtung

Other Hochschule Ost. Politisch Akademisches Journal aus Ostdeutschland · 1996 Cite

Review of Andrei S. Markovits and Philip Gorski, The German Left

Other American Political Science Review · March 1995 Cite

The Structuring of the Vote in Post-Communist Party Systems: The Bulgarian Example

Journal Article European Journal of Political Research · 1995 Cite

Austrian and Swedish Social Democrats in Crisis

Journal Article Comparative Political Studies · April 1994 Cite

Review of Mats Sjölin, Coalition Politics and Parliamentary Power

Other Politische Vierteljahresschriften, PVS-Literatur · 1994 Cite

Austrian and Swedish Social Democrats in Crisis: Party Strategy and Organization in Corporatist Regimes

Journal Article Comparative Political Studies · January 1, 1994 Socialists and social democrats have probably nowhere been better entrenched than in Austria and Sweden. Yet in both countries, they have suffered electoral defeats in the 1980s and early 1990s, just as socialists in many other West European nations. Chang ... Full text Cite

Social Movements: Political Parties, and Democratic Theory

Journal Article The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science · July 1993 Cite

Die Grünen: Wie Sie wurden, was sie sind

Journal Article Politische Vierteljahresschriften, PVS-Literatur · 1993 Cite

Review of Ferdinand Müller-RommelGrüne, Parteien in Westeuropa

Other Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie · 1993 Cite

Review of Joschim Raschke and cooperators, Die Grunen. Wie sie wurden, was sie sind

Other Politische Vierteljahreschriften, PVS-Literatur · 1993 Cite

"The Formation of Party Systems in East Central Europe"

Journal Article Politics and Society · March 1992 Cite

Industrial Governance Structures, Innovation Strategies, and the Case of Japan

Journal Article International Organization · October 1991 Cite

The Left-Right Semantics and the New Politics Cleavage

Journal Article Comparative Political Studies · July 1990 Cite

La gauche libertaire et les écologistes français

Journal Article Revue Française de Science Politique · 1990 Cite

Review of Social Movements and Political Power, by Carl Boggs

Other American Political Science Review · January 1989 Cite

Political Opportunity Structures and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four Democracies

Journal Article British Journal of Political Science · March 1986 Cite

Four theories of public policy making and fast breeder reactor development

Journal Article International Organization · January 1, 1986 Full text Cite

New Social Movements in the United States and West Germany

Journal Article Political Power and Social Theory · 1985 Cite

Organization and Mass Action in the Political Works of Rosa Luxemburg

Journal Article Politics & Society · January 1, 1980 Full text Cite