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Gavin Martin

Professor of Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology, Regional
Box 3094 Med Ctr, Durham, NC 27710
2301 Erwin Road, 6670A Hafsb Building, Durham, NC 27710

Selected Publications


A prospective randomized study examining the impact of intravenous versus inhalational anesthesia on postoperative cognitive decline and delirium.

Journal Article Appl Neuropsychol Adult · August 12, 2023 The present prospective randomized study was designed to investigate whether the development of Post Operative Cognitive Decline (POCD) is related to anesthesia type in older adults. All patients were screened for delirium and mental status, received basel ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mobile Cricothyrotomy Simulation Cart Improves Anesthesia Providers' Confidence, Technical Skills, and Procedure Time.

Journal Article AANA J · June 2022 Cricothyrotomy is an invasive airway used in "cannot intubate, cannot ventilate" events and can be taught using simulation. A mobile cricothyrotomy simulation for 66 anesthesia providers included an initial cricothyrotomy attempt (pretest), education, prac ... Link to item Cite

Early experience with universal preprocedural testing for SARS-CoV-2 in a relatively low-prevalence area.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · March 2021 We implemented universal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing of patients undergoing surgical procedures as a means to conserve personal protective equipment (PPE). The rate of asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19 ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Roadmap for Transforming Preoperative Assessment to Preoperative Optimization.

Journal Article Anesth Analg · April 2020 Preoperative assessment typically equates to evaluating and accepting the presenting condition of the patient (unless extreme) and commonly occurs only a few days before the planned surgery. While this timing enables a preoperative history and examination ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia: sugammadex versus neostigmine.

Journal Article BMC Anesthesiol · September 1, 2010 Featured Publication BACKGROUND: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors cannot rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block. Sugammadex, a selective relaxant binding agent, reverses the effects of rocuronium and vecuronium by encapsulation. This study assessed the efficacy of sugamma ... Full text Link to item Cite

A practical guide to commonly performed ultrasound-guided peripheral-nerve blocks.

Journal Article Curr Opin Anaesthesiol · October 2009 Featured Publication PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Regional anesthesia has experienced a tremendous renaissance of interest over the past several years. Much of this renewed enthusiasm among clinicians is due to the increased usage of ultrasound guidance for peripheral-nerve blocks. This ... Full text Link to item Cite

Posterior capsular injections of ropivacaine during total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Journal Article J Arthroplasty · September 2009 Featured Publication We investigated the hypothesis that a posterior capsular injection of ropivacaine would improve pain and accelerate functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design. Sixty-six patients receive ... Full text Link to item Cite

Regional anesthesia

Chapter · January 1, 2009 Surgery of the upper and lower limbs presents anesthesiologists with an alternative to general anesthesia, that being regional anesthesia. Even if we do not utilize a regional technique for anesthesia we certainly can do so for postoperative analgesia. For ... Full text Cite

Regional anesthesia for acute pain management in the outpatient setting

Chapter · January 1, 2009 Ambulatory surgery includes procedures following which, the patients are discharged from a health care facility within 23 hours. Advances in minimally invasive surgical technique have contributed to the frequency of outpatient procedures. Institutional fis ... Full text Cite

Evaluation of a single-dose, extended-release epidural morphine formulation for pain after knee arthroplasty.

Journal Article J Bone Joint Surg Am · February 2006 Featured Publication BACKGROUND: DepoDur is a single-dose, extended-release epidural morphine formulation designed to provide forty-eight hours of pain relief. The drug offers potential advantages over continuous epidural infusions, particularly in patients being treated with ... Full text Link to item Cite

Single-dose extended-release epidural morphine for pain following hip arthroplasty.

Journal Article Am J Ther · 2006 Featured Publication This open-label, serial-cohort pilot study evaluated DepoDur, a new, single-dose, extended-release epidural morphine (EREM) for pain control after hip arthroplasty. Single-dose EREM (10-30 mg) or a single dose of standard morphine sulfate (MS) (5 mg) was a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Single-dose extended-release epidural morphine for pain after hip arthroplasty.

Journal Article J Opioid Manag · 2006 Featured Publication This randomized, double-blind study compared the safety and efficacy of a new single-dose extended-release epidural morphine (EREM) formulation for postoperative pain following hip arthroplasty. Patients were administered a single dose of EREM (10, 20, or ... Full text Link to item Cite

C.T. Hartrick and G. Martin reply [6]

Journal Article Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery · January 1, 2006 Full text Cite

Forty-eight hours of postoperative pain relief after total hip arthroplasty with a novel, extended-release epidural morphine formulation.

Journal Article Anesthesiology · May 2005 Featured Publication BACKGROUND: Epidural morphine has proven analgesic efficacy in the postoperative period and is widely used. This study evaluated the efficacy of extended-release epidural morphine (EREM; DepoDur; Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc., Chadds Ford, PA; SkyePharma, Inc. ... Full text Link to item Cite

A comparison of Depodur, a novel, single-dose extended-release epidural morphine, with standard epidural morphine for pain relief after lower abdominal surgery.

Journal Article Anesth Analg · April 2005 Featured Publication In this randomized, controlled, dose-ranging study, we evaluated the analgesic efficacy of a novel single-dose extended-release epidural morphine (Depodur) in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Five-hundred-forty-one patients were randomly assign ... Full text Link to item Cite

A prospective randomized study examining the impact of intravenous versus inhalational anesthesia on postoperative cognitive decline and delirium.

Journal Article Appl Neuropsychol Adult · August 12, 2023 The present prospective randomized study was designed to investigate whether the development of Post Operative Cognitive Decline (POCD) is related to anesthesia type in older adults. All patients were screened for delirium and mental status, received basel ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mobile Cricothyrotomy Simulation Cart Improves Anesthesia Providers' Confidence, Technical Skills, and Procedure Time.

Journal Article AANA J · June 2022 Cricothyrotomy is an invasive airway used in "cannot intubate, cannot ventilate" events and can be taught using simulation. A mobile cricothyrotomy simulation for 66 anesthesia providers included an initial cricothyrotomy attempt (pretest), education, prac ... Link to item Cite

Early experience with universal preprocedural testing for SARS-CoV-2 in a relatively low-prevalence area.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · March 2021 We implemented universal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing of patients undergoing surgical procedures as a means to conserve personal protective equipment (PPE). The rate of asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19 ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Roadmap for Transforming Preoperative Assessment to Preoperative Optimization.

Journal Article Anesth Analg · April 2020 Preoperative assessment typically equates to evaluating and accepting the presenting condition of the patient (unless extreme) and commonly occurs only a few days before the planned surgery. While this timing enables a preoperative history and examination ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia: sugammadex versus neostigmine.

Journal Article BMC Anesthesiol · September 1, 2010 Featured Publication BACKGROUND: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors cannot rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block. Sugammadex, a selective relaxant binding agent, reverses the effects of rocuronium and vecuronium by encapsulation. This study assessed the efficacy of sugamma ... Full text Link to item Cite

A practical guide to commonly performed ultrasound-guided peripheral-nerve blocks.

Journal Article Curr Opin Anaesthesiol · October 2009 Featured Publication PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Regional anesthesia has experienced a tremendous renaissance of interest over the past several years. Much of this renewed enthusiasm among clinicians is due to the increased usage of ultrasound guidance for peripheral-nerve blocks. This ... Full text Link to item Cite

Posterior capsular injections of ropivacaine during total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Journal Article J Arthroplasty · September 2009 Featured Publication We investigated the hypothesis that a posterior capsular injection of ropivacaine would improve pain and accelerate functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design. Sixty-six patients receive ... Full text Link to item Cite

Regional anesthesia

Chapter · January 1, 2009 Surgery of the upper and lower limbs presents anesthesiologists with an alternative to general anesthesia, that being regional anesthesia. Even if we do not utilize a regional technique for anesthesia we certainly can do so for postoperative analgesia. For ... Full text Cite

Regional anesthesia for acute pain management in the outpatient setting

Chapter · January 1, 2009 Ambulatory surgery includes procedures following which, the patients are discharged from a health care facility within 23 hours. Advances in minimally invasive surgical technique have contributed to the frequency of outpatient procedures. Institutional fis ... Full text Cite

Evaluation of a single-dose, extended-release epidural morphine formulation for pain after knee arthroplasty.

Journal Article J Bone Joint Surg Am · February 2006 Featured Publication BACKGROUND: DepoDur is a single-dose, extended-release epidural morphine formulation designed to provide forty-eight hours of pain relief. The drug offers potential advantages over continuous epidural infusions, particularly in patients being treated with ... Full text Link to item Cite

Single-dose extended-release epidural morphine for pain following hip arthroplasty.

Journal Article Am J Ther · 2006 Featured Publication This open-label, serial-cohort pilot study evaluated DepoDur, a new, single-dose, extended-release epidural morphine (EREM) for pain control after hip arthroplasty. Single-dose EREM (10-30 mg) or a single dose of standard morphine sulfate (MS) (5 mg) was a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Single-dose extended-release epidural morphine for pain after hip arthroplasty.

Journal Article J Opioid Manag · 2006 Featured Publication This randomized, double-blind study compared the safety and efficacy of a new single-dose extended-release epidural morphine (EREM) formulation for postoperative pain following hip arthroplasty. Patients were administered a single dose of EREM (10, 20, or ... Full text Link to item Cite

C.T. Hartrick and G. Martin reply [6]

Journal Article Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery · January 1, 2006 Full text Cite

Forty-eight hours of postoperative pain relief after total hip arthroplasty with a novel, extended-release epidural morphine formulation.

Journal Article Anesthesiology · May 2005 Featured Publication BACKGROUND: Epidural morphine has proven analgesic efficacy in the postoperative period and is widely used. This study evaluated the efficacy of extended-release epidural morphine (EREM; DepoDur; Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc., Chadds Ford, PA; SkyePharma, Inc. ... Full text Link to item Cite

A comparison of Depodur, a novel, single-dose extended-release epidural morphine, with standard epidural morphine for pain relief after lower abdominal surgery.

Journal Article Anesth Analg · April 2005 Featured Publication In this randomized, controlled, dose-ranging study, we evaluated the analgesic efficacy of a novel single-dose extended-release epidural morphine (Depodur) in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Five-hundred-forty-one patients were randomly assign ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dexmedetomidine infusion for sedation during fiberoptic intubation: a report of three cases.

Journal Article J Clin Anesth · March 2004 Featured Publication We report three patients undergoing cervical spine surgery who required awake fiberoptic intubation, and in whom sedation was provided using a dexmedetomidine infusion. Dexmedetomidine was used to provide a moderate level of sedation without causing respir ... Full text Link to item Cite

Infectious complications.

Journal Article Reg Anesth Pain Med · 2004 Full text Link to item Cite

Unusual presentation and complication of the prone position for spinal surgery.

Journal Article J Clin Anesth · September 2003 Featured Publication Patient positioning for operative procedures has long been associated with perioperative complications. We present a case report of shoulder dislocation, which occurred following positioning in the prone position, and was detected by axillary artery occlus ... Full text Link to item Cite

Variability in determination of point of needle insertion in peripheral nerve blocks: a comparison of experienced and inexperienced anaesthetists.

Journal Article Anaesthesia · July 2003 Featured Publication Accurate identification of surface landmarks is essential for the successful performance of peripheral nerve blocks. The variability between experienced and inexperienced practitioners in identifying anatomical landmarks has not been studied previously. An ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lower limb blocks following general anaesthesia.

Journal Article Anaesthesia · June 2003 Featured Publication Full text Link to item Cite

A study of anesthetic drug utilization in different age groups.

Journal Article J Clin Anesth · May 2003 Featured Publication STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine anesthetic drug utilization in different age groups. DESIGN: Retrospective, automated, intraoperative database study. SETTING: Tertiary care medical center. MEASUREMENTS: 30,842 noncardiac general anesthesia case records betwe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of coracoid process for infraclavicular blocks.

Journal Article Reg Anesth Pain Med · 2003 Featured Publication Full text Link to item Cite

Central nervous system toxicity following the administration of levobupivacaine for lumbar plexus block: A report of two cases.

Journal Article Reg Anesth Pain Med · 2003 Featured Publication BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Central nervous system and cardiac toxicity following the administration of local anesthetics is a recognized complication of regional anesthesia. Levobupivacaine, the pure S(-) enantiomer of bupivacaine, was developed to improve ... Full text Link to item Cite

Severe phantom leg pain in an amputee after lumbar plexus block.

Journal Article Reg Anesth Pain Med · 2003 Featured Publication OBJECTIVES: To describe the onset of phantom leg pain in an amputee with the performance of a lumbar plexus block and the subsequent alleviation after the performance of a sciatic nerve block. CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old American Society of Anesthesiologist ... Full text Link to item Cite

A new teaching model for resident training in regional anesthesia.

Journal Article Anesth Analg · November 2002 Featured Publication UNLABELLED: The adequacy of resident education in regional anesthesia is of national concern. A teaching model to improve resident training in regional anesthesia was instituted in the Anesthesiology Residency in 1996 at Duke University Health System. The ... Full text Link to item Cite

A prospective, randomized comparison of thromboelastographic coagulation profile in patients receiving lactated Ringer's solution, 6% hetastarch in a balanced-saline vehicle, or 6% hetastarch in saline during major surgery.

Journal Article J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth · August 2002 Featured Publication OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of lactated Ringer's solution (LR), 6% hetastarch in a balanced-saline vehicle (HS-BS), and 6% hetastarch in normal saline (HS-NS) on coagulation using thromboelastography. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized double-blinded e ... Full text Link to item Cite

Assessment of the relative clinical utility of sufentanil and morphine administered by patient controlled analgesia pumps following abdominal hysterectomy

Journal Article Journal of Pharmaceutical Care in Pain and Symptom Control · January 1, 2000 The objective of this study was to compare clinical efficacy of two opioid analgesics postoperatively using Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA). It was a randomized, double-blind study involving 43 women undergoing elective abdominal hysterectomy. Each pati ... Full text Cite

Gender difference: Hype or fact?

Journal Article Seminars in Anesthesia · January 1, 2000 The number of trials looking at the gender effect on anesthetic agents is very limited. What evidence exists is not clear, but the general pattern suggests a difference in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between men and women for certain drugs. These ... Full text Cite

Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging of thoracic and lumbar paravertebral space in human cadavers

Journal Article Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine · January 1, 1999 INTRODUCTION: Several investigators have attempted to spatially visualize the paravertebral space (PVS) in humans. Most 3D models of the PVS are illustrations based on standard anatomical textbooks. Two-dimensional models of the PVS have been reconstructed ... Full text Cite

Oxygen consumption and cardiovascular function in children during profound intraoperative normovolemic hemodilution

Journal Article Anesthesia and Analgesia · 1995 The clinically acceptable limit of acute normovolemic, normothermic hemodilution, a standard procedure in scoliosis surgery, is not yet well defined. Eight ASA class I patients undergoing idiopathic scoliosis correction were administered a standard anesthe ... Full text Cite